Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) 2.1

Recommendation 31 December 2003 with errata corrections to 20 February 2013

Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2013 XBRL International Inc., All Rights Reserved.

This version:
<http://www.xbrl.org/Specification/XBRL-2.1/REC-2003-12-31/XBRL-2.1-REC-2003-12-31+corrected-errata-2013-02-20.html>
Editors:
Phillip Engel, XBRL US (formerly of KPMG LLP) <phillip.engel@xbrl.us>
Walter Hamscher, US SEC (formerly of Standard Advantage) <HamscherW@sec.gov>
Geoffrey Shuetrim, Galexy Pty. (formerly of KPMG LLP) <geoff@galexy.net>
David vun Kannon, Deloitte (formerly of PricewaterhouseCoopers and previously KPMG LLP) <dvunkannon@deloitte.com>
Hugh Wallis, IBM (formerly of XBRL International Inc. and previously Hyperion Solutions Corporation) <hugh.wallis@ca.ibm.com>
Contributors:
Herm Fischer, Mark V Systems (formerly of UBmatrix) <fischer@markv.com>
Luther Hampton, IBM (fomerly of e-Numerate) <luther.hampton@ibm.com>
Charles Hoffman, Formerly of UBmatrix <CharlesHoffman@olywa.net>
Louis Matherne, FASB (formerly of AICPA) <lmatherne@fasb.org>
Campbell Pryde, XBRL US (formerly of Morgan Stanley and previously of KPMG LLP) <campbell.pryde@xbrl.us>
Yufei Wang, KPMG <yufeiwang1@kpmg.com>
Mark Goodhand, CoreFiling <mrg@corefiling.com>

Status

Circulation of this Recommendation is unrestricted. This document is normative. Recipients are invited to submit comments to spec-feedback@xbrl.org, and to submit notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and provide supporting documentation.

Abstract

XBRL is the specification for the eXtensible Business Reporting Language. XBRL allows software vendors, programmers, intermediaries in the preparation and distribution process and end users who adopt it as a specification to enhance the creation, exchange, and comparison of business reporting information. Business reporting includes, but is not limited to, financial statements, financial information, non-financial information, general ledger transactions and regulatory filings, such as annual and quarterly reports.

This document defines XML elements and attributes that can be used to express information used in the creation, exchange, and comparison tasks of business reporting. XBRL consists of a core language of XML elements and attributes used in XBRL instances as well as a language used to define new elements and taxonomies of elements referred to in XBRL instances, and to express constraints among the contents of elements in those XBRL instances.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction
1.1 Documentation conventions
1.2 Purpose
1.3 Relationship to other work
1.4 Terminology (non-normative except where otherwise noted)
1.5 Levels of conformance
1.6 Namespace prefix conventions
1.7 Extensions to this specification
2 Changes from the previous published version
2.1 Changes in XBRL instances
2.2 Changes in XBRL taxonomies
3 XBRL framework
3.1 Overview of XBRL taxonomies
3.2 Overview of XBRL instances
3.3 Data integrity and confidentiality
3.4 Validation
3.5 XLink in XBRL
3.5.1 Simple links
3.5.1.1 The @xlink:type attribute on simple links
3.5.1.2 The @xlink:href attribute on simple links
3.5.1.3 The @xlink:role attribute on simple links (optional)
3.5.1.4 The @xlink:arcrole attribute on simple links (optional)
3.5.1.5 The @xml:base attribute on simple links (optional)
3.5.2 The <linkbase> element
3.5.2.1 The @id attribute on <linkbase> elements (optional)
3.5.2.2 The @xml:base attribute on <linkbase> elements (optional)
3.5.2.3 <Documentation> elements in <linkbase> elements (optional)
3.5.2.4 The <roleRef> element (optional)
3.5.2.4.1 The @xlink:type attribute on <roleRef> elements
3.5.2.4.2 The @xlink:href attribute on <roleRef> elements
3.5.2.4.3 The @xlink:arcrole attribute on <roleRef> elements (optional)
3.5.2.4.4 The @xlink:role attribute on <roleRef> elements (optional)
3.5.2.4.5 The @roleURI attribute
3.5.2.5 The <arcroleRef> element (optional)
3.5.2.5.1 The @xlink:type attribute on <arcroleRef> elements
3.5.2.5.2 The @xlink:href attribute on <arcroleRef> elements
3.5.2.5.3 The @xlink:arcrole attribute on <arcroleRef> elements (optional)
3.5.2.5.4 The @xlink:role attribute on <arcroleRef> elements (optional)
3.5.2.5.5 The @arcroleURI attribute
3.5.3 Extended links
3.5.3.1 The @id attribute on extended links (optional)
3.5.3.2 The @xlink:type attribute on extended links
3.5.3.3 The @xlink:role attribute on extended links
3.5.3.4 The @xml:base attribute on extended links (optional)
3.5.3.5 Documentation elements in extended links (optional)
3.5.3.6 Titles in extended links (optional)
3.5.3.6.1 The @xlink:type attribute on titles
3.5.3.7 Locators
3.5.3.7.1 The @xlink:type attribute on locators
3.5.3.7.2 The @xlink:href attribute on locators
3.5.3.7.3 The @xlink:label attribute on locators
3.5.3.7.4 Titles on locators (optional)
3.5.3.8 Resources
3.5.3.8.1 The @xlink:type attribute on resources
3.5.3.8.2 The @xlink:label attribute on resources
3.5.3.8.3 The @xlink:role attribute on resources (optional)
3.5.3.8.4 The @id attribute on resources (optional)
3.5.3.9 Arcs
3.5.3.9.1 The @xlink:type attribute on arcs
3.5.3.9.2 The @xlink:from attribute
3.5.3.9.3 The @xlink:to attribute
3.5.3.9.4 The @xlink:arcrole attribute
3.5.3.9.5 The @order attribute (optional)
3.5.3.9.6 Titles on arcs (optional)
3.5.3.9.7 Prohibiting and overriding relationships
3.5.3.9.7.1 The @use attribute (optional)
3.5.3.9.7.2 The @priority attribute (optional)
3.5.3.9.7.3 Networks of relationships in a DTS
3.5.3.9.7.4 Equivalent relationships
3.5.3.9.7.5 Rules of prohibiting and overriding relationships
3.5.4 Use of XPointer in URI fragment identifiers
4 XBRL instances
4.1 The <xbrl> element
4.1.1 The @id attribute on <xbrl> elements (optional)
4.1.2 The @xml:base attribute on <xbrl> elements (optional)
4.2 The <schemaRef> element in XBRL Instances
4.2.1 The @xlink:type attribute on <schemaRef> elements
4.2.2 The @xlink:href attribute on <schemaRef> elements
4.2.3 The @xlink:arcrole attribute on <schemaRef> elements (optional)
4.2.4 The @xlink:role attribute on <schemaRef> elements (optional)
4.2.5 The @xml:base attribute on <schemaRef> elements (optional)
4.3 The <linkbaseRef> element in XBRL instances
4.3.1 The @xlink:type attribute on <linkbaseRef> elements
4.3.2 The @xlink:href attribute on <linkbaseRef> elements
4.3.3 The @xlink:arcrole attribute on <linkbaseRef> elements
4.3.4 The @xlink:role attribute on <linkbaseRef> elements (optional)
4.3.5 The @xml:base attribute on <linkbaseRef> elements (optional)
4.4 The <roleRef> element in XBRL instances (optional)
4.5 The <arcroleRef> element in XBRL instances (optional)
4.6 Items
4.6.1 The @contextRef attribute
4.6.2 The @unitRef attribute
4.6.3 Usage of @precision and @decimals attributes
4.6.4 The @precision attribute (optional)
4.6.5 The @decimals attribute (optional)
4.6.6 Inferring decimals
4.6.7 Definitions pertaining to accuracy
4.6.7.1 "Correct to n Significant Figures", "Rounding" and "Truncation"
4.6.7.2 "Correct to n Decimal Places"
4.7 The <context> element
4.7.1 The @id attribute
4.7.2 The <period> element
4.7.3 The <entity> element
4.7.3.1 <identifier>
4.7.3.2 The <segment> element (optional)
4.7.4 The <scenario> element (optional)
4.8 The <unit> element
4.8.1 The @id attribute
4.8.2 The <measure> element
4.8.3 The <divide> element
4.8.4 The <unitNumerator> and <unitDenominator> elements
4.9 Tuples
4.10 Equality predicates relevant to detecting duplicate items and tuples
4.11 Footnotes
4.11.1 The <footnoteLink> element
4.11.1.1 Locators in <footnoteLink> elements
4.11.1.2 The <footnote> element
4.11.1.2.1 The @xml:lang attribute on <footnote> elements
4.11.1.3 The <footnoteArc> element
4.11.1.3.1 @xlink:arcrole attributes on <footnoteArc> elements
4.11.1.3.2 @xlink:title attribute on <footnoteArc> elements (optional)
5 XBRL Taxonomies
5.1 Taxonomy schemas
5.1.1 Concept definitions
5.1.1.1 The @periodType attribute
5.1.1.2 The @balance attribute (optional)
5.1.1.3 Item data types
5.1.1.3.1 The monetary, shares and pure data types
5.1.1.3.2 The fractionItemType data type
5.1.2 The <linkbaseRef> element
5.1.3 Defining custom role types - the <roleType> element
5.1.3.1 The @roleURI attribute
5.1.3.2 The @id attribute on <roleType> elements (optional)
5.1.3.3 The <definition> element in <roleType> elements (optional)
5.1.3.4 The <usedOn> element in <roleType> elements
5.1.4 Defining custom arc role types - the arcroleType element
5.1.4.1 The @arcroleURI attribute
5.1.4.2 The @id attribute on <arcroleType> elements (optional)
5.1.4.3 The @cyclesAllowed attribute
5.1.4.4 The <definition> element on <arcroleType> elements (optional)
5.1.4.5 The <usedOn> element on <arcroleType> elements
5.1.5 Prohibit <redefine>
5.2 Taxonomy linkbases
5.2.1 The <linkbase> element
5.2.2 The <labelLink> element
5.2.2.1 Locators in <labelLink> elements
5.2.2.2 The <label> element
5.2.2.2.1 The @xml:lang attribute on <label> elements
5.2.2.2.2 The @xlink:role attribute on <label> elements (optional)
5.2.2.3 The <labelArc> element
5.2.3 The <referenceLink> element
5.2.3.1 Locators in <referenceLink> elements
5.2.3.2 The reference element
5.2.3.2.1 The @xlink:role attribute on reference elements (optional)
5.2.3.3 The <referenceArc> element
5.2.4 The <presentationLink> element
5.2.4.1 Locators in <presentationLink> elements
5.2.4.2 The <presentationArc> element
5.2.4.2.1 The @preferredLabel attribute (optional)
5.2.5 The <calculationLink> element
5.2.5.1 Locators in <calculationLink> elements
5.2.5.2 The <calculationArc> element
5.2.5.2.1 The @weight attribute
5.2.5.2.2 Calculation scoping
5.2.6 The <definitionLink> element
5.2.6.1 Locators in <definitionLink> elements
5.2.6.2 The <definitionArc> element
5.2.6.2.1 "general-special" arcs
5.2.6.2.2 "essence-alias" arcs
5.2.6.2.3 "similar-tuples" arcs
5.2.6.2.4 "requires-element" arcs
6 References

Appendices

A Schemas
A.1 xbrl-instance-2003-12-31.xsd (normative)
A.2 xbrl-linkbase-2003-12-31.xsd (normative)
A.3 xlink-2003-12-31.xsd (normative)
A.4 xl-2003-12-31.xsd (normative)
B Document history and acknowledgments (non-normative)
C Intellectual property status (non-normative)
D Errata Corrections incorporated in this document

Tables

1 Terms and definitions.
2 Roles in the linkbaseRef element
3 Unit restrictions based on item types.
4 Equality predicate definitions.
5 Correct signage in an XBRL instance
6 Constraints among the balance attribute and calculation arc weights
7 Defined item types
8 Standard label role attribute values.
9 Reference role attribute values.

Examples

1 A skeletal linkbase
2 One-to-One arc relationships [XLINK]
3 One-to-Many arc relationships [XLINK]
4 Many-to-Many arc relationships [XLINK]
5 Correct use of arcs according to [XLINK]
6 Prohibiting and overriding relationships
7 Example @xlink:href values
8 Use of xbrl as the root element
9 A numeric fact with three significant digits
10 A non-numeric item
11 Precision and lexical representation
12 Decimals and lexical representation
13 Lexical representation, precision and decimals
14 Rounding
15 Correct to n decimal places
16 IDs
17 Entity identifiers
18 Using the segment element
19 Use of the scenario element
20 Use of the unit element
21 Simple and complex unit of measure comparison
22 Defining a tuple as a member of the substitutionGroup "tuple"
23 Elements describing business properties held and disposed
24 Hierarchy in a tuple
25 Duplicate items, tuples and contexts
26 Predicates for detecting duplicates
27 A footnote in an XBRL instance
28 A skeletal taxonomy schema showing linkbase references
29 Typical element definitions in a taxonomy schema
30 Instant and duration concept definitions
31 Using the balance element to indicate normal debit and credit balances
32 A concept appearing with positive and negative values in an XBRL instance
33 Deriving an enumerated item type
34 Representing fractions
35 Defining a custom role type
36 Defining a custom arc role value
37 Directed cycles
38 Undirected cycles
39 Using relationship prohibition to insert a new sub-total into a calculation network
40 Types of cycles
41 Elements of a financial reporting taxonomy
42 Hierarchy in a calculation linkbase
43 Hierarchy of general-special arcs in a definition linkbase
44 Hierarchy in a presentation linkbase
45 Label resource examples
46 Arc between a concept and one of its labels
47 Sample values of @xlink:role for several <referenceLink> elements
48 Arc between a concept and supporting references
49 Reference resource
50 A presentation arc
51 An abstract concept definition
52 Calculations involving decimals and precision
53 Syntax of a calculationArc
54 Cash, equivalent to cash as totalled by branch location and account type
55 XBRL instance fragment with nested tuples
56 A general-special arc
57 Inference of values for non-numeric items with concepts connected by essence-alias arcs
58 Inference of values for numeric items with concepts connected by essence-alias arcs

Definitions

Abstract Element
Alias Concept
Alias Item
Ancestor
Arc
C-Equal
Concept
Concrete Element
Context
Custom Arc Element
Custom Extended Link Element
Custom Resource Element
Discoverable Taxonomy Set (DTS)
Duplicate Items
Duplicate Tuples
Element
Entity
Essence Concept
Essence Item
Extended Link
Fact
Instance Namespace
Item
Least Common Ancestor
Linkbase
Linkbase Namespace
Locator
MUST
Non-Numeric Item
Numeric Item
P-Equal
Period
Resource
Root of an XBRL Instance
S-Equal
Standard Arc Element
Standard Extended Link Element
Standard Resource Element
Taxonomy
Taxonomy Schema
Tuple
U-Equal
Unit
V-Equal
X-Equal
XBRL Instance


1 Introduction

XBRL is the specification for the eXtensible Business Reporting Language. XBRL allows software vendors, programmers and end users to enhance the creation, exchange, and comparison of business reporting information. Business reporting includes, but is not limited to, financial statements, financial information, non-financial information and regulatory filings such as annual and quarterly financial statements.

This document defines XML elements and attributes that can be used to express information used in the creation, exchange and comparison tasks of business reporting. XBRL consists of a core language of XML elements and attributes used in document instances. Abstract Elements in this core language are replaced by Concrete Elements in XBRL Instances. These abstract elements are defined in taxonomies. XBRL consists of a language used to define new elements and taxonomies of elements referred to in document instances and the relationships between taxonomy elements.

All parts of this document not explicitly identified as non-normative are normative. In the event of any conflict or apparent conflict between the English language text of this document and/or schema fragments included in the main body of this document and the normative schemas contained herein (Appendix A), the more restrictive interpretation that is possible from the information provided by the English language text and that provided by the normative schemas (Appendix A) SHALL prevail. The schema fragments incorporated into the body of the text are non-normative and are generally indicated as such by means of shading such as that defined in Section 1.1. It is important to note that the normative schemas (Appendix A) do not necessarily always provide the most restrictive interpretation, either because it is not possible to express certain limitations using the syntax of XML Schema [XML Schema Structures] [XML Schema Datatypes] or because, as at the time of publication of this specification, some commonly available commercial implementations of XML Schema do not implement otherwise necessary features correctly or fully. For example, the schema specification of the Abstract Element tuple (Appendix A) does not restrict its content model as much as the English language text in Section 4.9. The text of section 4.9 SHALL prevail in this case. Another, converse, example is the order of the sub-elements of the <context> element. In this case the schema (Appendix A) dictates a specific ordering of these sub-elements yet this is not explicitly articulated in the text of Section 4.7. The schema (Appendix A) provides the more restrictive interpretation and thus it SHALL prevail over any alternative possible interpretation of the English language text in this case.

The schemas and other documents published separately and contemporaneously with the specification are non-normative and are provided for the convenience of users of this specification.

1.1 Documentation conventions

The following highlighting is used to present non-normative technical material in this document:

The following highlighting is used for non-normative commentary in this document:

Non-normative editorial comments are denoted by indentation and the prefix "NOTE:":

NOTE: This is a non-normative editorial comment.

Italics are used for rhetorical emphasis only and do not convey any special normative meaning.

1.2 Purpose

The XBRL specification is intended to benefit four categories of users: 1) business information preparers, 2) intermediaries in the preparation and distribution process, 3) users of this information and 4) the vendors who supply software and services to one or more of these three types of user. The overall intention is to balance the needs of these groups creating a standard that benefits to all four groups.

The needs of end users of business information have generally taken precedence over other needs when it has been necessary to make specification design decisions that might benefit one community at the expense of another.

A major goal of XBRL is to improve the business report product. It facilitates current practice; it does not change or set new accounting or other business domain standards. However, XBRL should facilitate changes in reporting over the long term.

XBRL provides users with a standard format in which to prepare reports that can subsequently be presented in a variety of ways. XBRL provides users with a standard format in which information can be exchanged between different software applications. XBRL permits the automated, efficient and reliable extraction of information by software applications. XBRL facilitates the automated comparison of financial and other business information, accounting policies, notes to financial statements between companies, and other items about which users may wish make comparisons that today are performed manually.

XBRL facilitates "drill down" to detailed information, authoritative literature, audit and accounting working papers. XBRL includes specifications for as much information about the reporting entity as may be relevant and useful to the process of financial and business reporting and the interpretation of the information.

XBRL supports international accounting and other standards as well as languages other than the various dialects of English.

XBRL is extensible by any adopter to increase its breadth of applicability, and its design encourages reuse via incremental extensions. For example, XBRL specifies the format of information that would reasonably be expected in an electronic format for securities filings by public entities. XBRL facilitates business reporting in general, and is not limited to financial and accounting reporting.

XBRL focuses on the genuine information needs of the user and adheres to the spirit of reporting standards that avoid the use of bold, italics, and other stylistic techniques that may distract from a true and fair presentation of results. Therefore, there is no functional requirement that XBRL documents support any particular text formatting conventions.

The purpose of XBRL Instances is the transmission of a set of facts. There is no constraint on how much or how little they contain. A single fact can form the entire content of a valid XBRL instance, for example, when the information being conveyed is limited to what "Cost of Goods Sold" was last quarter or an XBRL instance can be a database dump, containing huge numbers of facts. It can also be anything in between. This provides a great deal of flexibility and is meant specifically to achieve the goals of allowing XBRL to be reused within other specifications and for application software needing to extract data from otherwise arbitrarily formatted documents. It is expected that, for most uses of XBRL, many XML XBRL instances will be created that consist almost exclusively of facts.

1.3 Relationship to other work

XBRL uses several World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommendations, XML 1.0 [XML], Namespaces in XML [XML Names], and refers directly to XML Linking [XLINK] and others listed in Section 6 References. It also relies extensively on the XML Schema [XML Schema Structures] and [XML Schema Datatypes] recommendation.

Discussions have taken place with other bodies issuing XML specifications in the financial arena, including OAG (Open Applications Group), OMG (Object Management Group), FpML (Financial Products Markup Language), finXML (Financial XML), OFX/IFX (Open Financial Exchange) and ebXML (e-Business XML). The scope of XBRL does not include transaction protocols. It includes financial reporting and contemplates extensive detail in the representation and use of accounting conventions, which distinguishes it from these other efforts.

1.4 Terminology (non-normative except where otherwise noted)

The terminology used in XBRL frequently overlaps with terminology from other fields, and the following list is provided to reduce the possibility of ambiguity and confusion (see also the references in Section 6 below). These definitions are non-normative except where marked otherwise by means of the word (NORMATIVE) appearing in the "Term" column.

Table 1: Terms and definitions.
Term Definition
Abstract Element An element for which the attribute @abstract in its XML schema declaration has the value "true" and which, therefore, cannot be used in an XML instance.
Alias Concept The Concept at the "to" end of a definition arc with arc role http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/essence-alias. Alias and Essence Concepts are definitionally equivalent in the sense that valid values for an alias concept are always valid values for essence concepts to which they are related by an essence-alias relationship.
Alias Item An item in an instance whose element is an alias concept.
Arc Arcs relate Concepts to each other by associating their locators. Arcs also associate concepts with resources by connecting the concept locators to the resources themselves. Arcs are also used to connect fact locators to footnote resources in footnote extended links. Arcs have a set of attributes that document the nature of the relationships expressed in extended links. Importantly all arcs have an @xlink:arcrole attribute that determines the semantics of the relationship they describe.
C-Equal Context-equal: Items or sets or sequences of items having the same item type in s-equal contexts. For a formal definition, see Section 4.10 below.
Ancestor, Child, Descendant, Grandparent, Parent, Sibling, Uncle (NORMATIVE) Relationships among elements in an XBRL instance: using the terminology of [XPath 1.0], for any element E, another element F is its:
  • ancestor if and only if F appears on the ancestor axis of E
  • child if and only if F appears on the child axis of E
  • descendant if and only if F appears on the descendant axis of E
  • grandparent if and only if F is the parent of the parent of E
  • parent if and only if F appears on the parent axis of E
  • sibling if and only if F appears on the child axis of the parent of E and is not E itself
  • uncle if and only if F is a sibling of the parent of E
Concept Concepts are defined in two equivalent ways. In a syntactic sense, a concept is an XML Schema element definition, defining the element to be in the item element substitution group or in the tuple element substitution group. At a semantic level, a concept is a definition of a kind of fact that can be reported about the activities or nature of a business activity.
Concrete Element An element for which the attribute @abstract in its XML schema declaration has the value "false" and which, therefore, may appear in an XML instance.
Context Contexts are elements that occur as children of the root element in XBRL instances. They document the entity, the period and the scenario that collectively give the appropriate context for understanding the values of items.
Custom Arc Element An element derived from xl:arc that is not defined in this specification, Specifically, not one of: link:presentationArc, link:calculationArc, link:labelArc, link:referenceArc, or link:definitionArc.
Custom Extended Link Element An element derived from xl:link that is not defined in this specification. Specifically, not one of: link:presentationLink, link:calculationLink, link:labelLink, link:referenceLink, or link:definitionLink.
Custom Resource Element A element derived from xl:resource that is not defined in this specification, Specifically, not one of: one of link:label, link:reference, or link:footnote.
Discoverable Taxonomy Set (DTS) A DTS is a collection of taxonomy schemas and linkbases. The bounds of a DTS are such that the DTS includes all taxonomy schemas and linkbases that can be discovered by following links or references in the taxonomy schemas and linkbases included in the DTS. At least one taxonomy schema in a DTS must import the xbrl-instance-2003-12-31.xsd schema. See Section 3 for details on the discovery process.
Duplicate Items Two items of the same concept in the same context under the same parent. For a formal definition see duplicate item in Section 4.10.
Duplicate Tuples Two occurrences of a tuple with all their descendants having the same content; more precisely: tuples that are p-equal, all of whose tuple children have a duplicate (except for being p-equal) in the other tuple, and all of whose item children have a duplicate (except for being p-equal) in the other tuple. For a formal definition see duplicate tuple in Section 4.10.
Element An XML element defined using XML Schema.
Entity A business entity, the subject of XBRL items. Where the [XML]/[SGML] concept of syntactic "entity" is meant, this will be pointed out.
Essence Concept The Concept at the "from" end of a definition arc with arc role http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/essence-alias. Alias and essence concepts are definitionally equivalent in the sense that valid values for an alias concept are always valid values for essence concepts to which they are related by an essence-alias relationship.
Essence Item An item in an instance whose element is an essence concept.
Extended Link An extended link is an element identified as an extended link using the syntax defined in the XML Linking Language [XLINK]. Extended links represent a set of relationships between information that they contain and information contained in third party documents. See Section 3.5.2.4 for more details.
Fact Facts can be simple, in which case their values must be expressed as simple content (except in the case of simple facts whose values are expressed as a ratio), and facts can be compound, in which case their value is made up from other simple and/or compound facts. Simple facts are expressed using items (and are referred to as items in this specification) and compound facts are expressed using tuples (and are referred to as tuples in this specification).
Instance Namespace The namespace used for XBRL 2.1 instances, http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance
Item An item is an element in the substitution group for the XBRL item element. It contains the value of the simple fact and a reference to the context (and unit for numeric items) needed to correctly interpret that fact. When items occur as children of a tuple, they must also be interpreted in light of the other items and tuples that are children of the same tuple. There are numeric items and non-numeric items, with numeric items being required to document their measurement accuracy and units of measurement.
Least Common Ancestor In an instance, the element that is an ancestor of two elements and has no child that also appears on the ancestor axis [XPath 1.0] of those same two elements.
Linkbase A linkbase is a collection of XML Linking Language [XLINK] extended links that document the semantics of Concepts in a taxonomy.
Linkbase Namespace The namespace of XBRL 2.1 linkbases, http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase
Locator Locators supply an XPointer [XPOINTER] reference to the taxonomy schema element definitions that uniquely identify each Concept. They provide an anchor for extended link arcs. See Section 3.5.3.7 for more details.
MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD, SHOULD NOT, MAY, OPTIONAL (NORMATIVE)

The key words MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD, SHOULD NOT, RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL, in this specification, are to be interpreted as described in [IETF RFC 2119].

Non-Numeric Item An item that is not a numeric item as defined below. Dates, in particular, are not numeric.
Numeric Item An item whose simple content is derived by restriction from the XML Schema primitive types decimal, float or double, or complex content derived by restriction from the XBRL defined type fractionItemType (see Section 5.1.1.3 for details on item types).
Period An instant or duration of time. In business reporting, financial numbers and other facts are reported "as of" an instant or for a period of certain duration. Facts about instants and durations are both common.
P-Equal Parent-equal: instance items or tuples having the same parent. For a formal definition, see Section 4.10 below.
Resource Resources are XML fragments, contained within extended links that provide additional information about Concepts or items. See Section 3.5.3.8 for details.
Root of an XBRL Instance The root of an XBRL instance is the <xbrl> element. In principle, it is possible to embed an XBRL instance in any XML document. In this case, the <xbrl> element is the container for the XBRL instance.
S-Equal Structure-equal: XML nodes that are either equal in the XML value space, or whose XBRL-relevant sub-elements and attributes are s-equal. For a formal definition, see Section 4.10 below.
Standard Arc Element An element derived from xl:arc that is defined in this specification, Specifically, one of: link:presentationArc, link:calculationArc, link:labelArc, link:referenceArc, or link:definitionArc.
Standard Extended Link Element An element derived from xl:link that is defined in this specification. Specifically, one of: link:presentationLink, link:calculationLink, link:labelLink, link:referenceLink, or link:definitionLink.
Standard Resource Element A element derived from xl:resource that is defined in this specification, Specifically, one of: link:label, link:reference, or link:footnote.
Taxonomy A taxonomy is an XML schema and the set of XBRL linkbases that it references using <linkbaseRef> elements and the linkbases that are nested within it.
Taxonomy Schema A taxonomy schema is an XML Schema [XML Schema Structures]. A large part of many taxonomy schemas is given over to the definition of the syntax for the Concepts in that taxonomy. Section 3.1, Section 5 and Section 5.1 address this in more detail.
Tuple A tuple is an element in the substitution group for the XBRL tuple element. Tuples are used to bind together the parts of a compound fact. Those constituent parts are themselves, facts but they must be interpreted in light of each-other. For example, the name, age and compensation of a director of a company need to be grouped together to be correctly understood.
Unit Units are XML fragments that occur as children of the root element in XBRL instances. They document the unit of measure for numeric items. Each <unit> element is only capable of documenting a single unit of measurement.
U-Equal Unit-equal. u-equal numeric items having the same units of measurement. For a formal definition, see Section 4.10 below.
V-Equal Value-equal: c-equal items having either the same non-numeric value, or numeric values that are equal within some tolerance defined by the lesser of their respective @precision, implied @precision or @decimals attributes. For a formal definition see Section 4.10 below.
XBRL Instance XBRL instances are XML fragments with root element, <xbrl> . XBRL instances contain business report facts, with each fact corresponding to a Concept defined in their supporting DTS. XBRL instances also contain contexts and units that provide additional information needed to interpret the facts in the instance.
X-Equal [XPath 1.0]-equal: The XPath "=" operator returns the value true. For a formal definition, see Section 4.10 below.

1.5 Levels of conformance

This specification describes two levels of conformance for XBRL aware processors. The first is required of all XBRL processors. Support for the other level of conformance will depend on the purpose of the processor.

Minimally conforming XBRL processors MUST completely and correctly implement all of the syntactic restrictions embodied in this specification.

Fully conforming XBRL processors MUST be minimally conforming and, in addition, they MUST completely and correctly implement all of the semantic restrictions relating to linkbases and XBRL instances.

All restrictions embodied in this specification apply to minimally conforming processors unless otherwise stated.

1.6 Namespace prefix conventions

This specification uses a number of namespace prefixes when describing elements and attributes. The namespace prefix convention used is as follows:

Namespace prefix Namespace name
link http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase
xbrli http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance
xl http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink
xlink http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink
xml http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace
xsi http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance
xsd http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema

Note that the xml prefix is reserved as defined in [XML Names]; specifically at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names/#nsc-NSDeclared.

Some elements and attributes defined in this specification are described without use of a namespace prefix or namespace. The normative namespaces for all elements and attributes defined in this spec are determined by the normative schemas contained herein (Appendix A).

1.7 Extensions to this specification

It is understood that no single XML vocabulary can capture the entirety of business reporting. XBRL has therefore included extensibility as a design principle. Certain kinds of extension facilities are embodied in this specification, such as the basic ability to create taxonomies. In addition, it is possible to create new kinds of linkbases and new roles and arc roles for new and existing linkbases. It is also possible to create attributes that may be used on elements from the various XBRL namespaces. Other methods of extending the functionality of XBRL MAY be introduced in the future, by individual developers or with formal support from the XBRL consortium.

However, the design of this specification is such that all extension mechanisms MUST obey certain rules as follows:

  • An extension MUST NOT add anything to the namespaces defined by this specification.
  • An extension MUST NOT change the semantics of anything in this specification or anything in any of the namespaces defined in the schemas.
  • An extension MUST use the elements and attributes of XBRL 2.1 and the other namespaces defined in this specification following the semantics defined herein and the syntactic constraints of XML Schema.

As an example, certain linkbases defined in this specification do not allow local resources. That constraint MUST NOT be changed by any extension mechanism. It is not permitted to create a "resources-allowed" link role whose semantics are to make local resources acceptable.

In summary, the only way to change the semantics of anything defined by this specification would be to change the text of this specification itself.

2 Changes from the previous published version

Changes from the previous, December 2001 version of [XBRL 2.1] (and the interim 2.0a "patch" release in November 2002) were driven by two factors. Several implementations of XML Schema required the removal of an ambiguous content model from the definition of contexts. This was done without changing the language recognised by the schema. Further implementation experience within the XBRL community, including the publication of the XBRL General Ledger taxonomy, motivated many other changes. A number of business requirements documented by the XBRL International Domain working group have been incorporated.

2.1 Changes in XBRL instances

The group element has been eliminated. It has been replaced with the <xbrl> element, which acts as the root element of an XBRL Instance.

The set of Taxonomy Schemas and linkbases supporting an XBRL Instance has been formally defined (as a Discoverable Taxonomy Set (DTS)). XBRL instances now identify their supporting DTS using a new <schemaRef> element, which points to supporting taxonomy schemas and using the existing <linkbaseRef> element, which points to supporting linkbases. The XML Schema Instance @schemaLocation attribute is no longer required in the DTS discovery process.

The <schemaRef> elements must now appear first in an XBRL Instance. The <linkbaseRef> elements must appear after the <schemaRef> elements and before all other elements in an XBRL instance.

Guidance has been included on the entry of numerical quantities in XBRL Instances for the common case of elements from accounting related taxonomies (elements using the optional " @balance" attribute in their definition). The duration element has been eliminated from context Periods so durations now have to be represented using startDate and endDate. There is also additional guidance on entering data to define a period of time.

The content of the Unit element has been simplified to facilitate more straightforward detection of equivalent units of measurement.

The @precision attribute on numericContext has been eliminated in favour of more detailed documentation at the level of the Numeric Items. The @CWA attribute on the numericContext element has been eliminated. The <unit> element has been separated from the numericContext element to enable numeric and Non-Numeric Items to use the same context structures. The numericContext element and the nonNumericContext element have been replaced with a <context> element that documents only Entity, Period and scenario.

An additional mechanism has been introduced to enable XBRL Instance preparers to make statements about the numerical accuracy of the facts reported. Specifically, a new @decimals attribute has been allowed on items of numeric type to provide an alternative way to document accuracy in terms of the number of decimal places to which a numerical fact is accurate. Rules for handling @precision and @decimals attributes have been provided.

To specify that numbers are stated exactly in an XBRL Instance, two new types have been defined for use by the @decimals and @precision attributes. These types enable XBRL Instances to specify that numbers are represented to an infinite number of significant figures or number of decimal places.

The definition of a Duplicate Item has been changed to include reference to the content of any Tuple structures that contain the items being compared.

2.2 Changes in XBRL taxonomies

Some of the Arc role values and role values previously suggested are now normative and additional arc role values and role values have been defined. Some of the previously suggested arc role values have been removed. A new mechanism to define custom arc role values and role values has been added. The essence-alias arc in definition Extended Links has superseded the element-dimension relationship in calculation extended links. The parent-child arc no longer exists in the calculation extended link and has been replaced by summation-item arc. The parent-child arc no longer exists in the definition extended link and has been replaced by the general-special arc and by the XML Schema approach to content modelling for Tuples. Because the parent-child arc in definition extended links has two possible replacements, this is one area where complete backward compatibility with 2.0 has not been achieved. Some manual intervention may be required when converting these relationships expressed in 2.0 taxonomies to 2.1. Some networks of relationships are no longer allowed to contain directed or undirected cycles.

Tuples may now have a complex content model, but MUST only use a restricted set of XML Schema constructs to describe this content model. Tuple content model definitions MUST NOT permit descendant elements for the tuple that are not in the item substitution group or in the tuple substitution group. This implies that the declarations of the descendant elements for tuples MUST be references to globally declared elements [XML Schema Structures].

Calculations have been constrained to apply only within the scope of a Tuple for items within a tuple.

The number of available item types has been expanded to include all of the appropriate built-in data types of XML Schema [XML Schema Datatypes].

A new type for items has been defined to allow the specification of facts that are reported as fractions (such as 22.5/77.5). The fraction type is not among the built-in data types of XML Schema [XML Schema Datatypes]. Since fractions have two parts, denominator and numerator, it has complex content.

Derivation of new item and Tuple types from those defined by XBRL itself has been limited so that item types MUST be defined by restriction from the set of item types provided by XBRL. This set contains item types that are derived by extension from all the appropriate built-in simple types of XML Schema and a special purpose type with complex content, the fractionItemType.

The suggested @xlink:role attribute on extended link Locators, that indicated the root element of a relationship hierarchy, has been eliminated.

Clarity has been provided around the possibility for linkbases to be contained in Taxonomy Schemas.

A mandatory @periodType attribute has been added to Concept definitions to constrain the type of Period that can be attached to items based on concepts.

3 XBRL framework

XBRL defines a syntax in which a fact can be reported as the value of a well defined reporting Concept within a particular context. The syntax enables software to efficiently and reliably find, extract and interpret those facts. The XBRL framework splits business reporting information into two components: XBRL Instances and taxonomies.

XBRL Instances contain the facts being reported while the taxonomies define the Concepts being communicated by the facts. The combination of an XBRL instance and its supporting taxonomies, and additional linkbases constitute an XBRL business report.

3.1 Overview of XBRL taxonomies

A taxonomy is comprised of an XML Schema [XML Schema Structures] and all of the linkbases contained in that schema or directly referenced by that schema. The XML schema is known as a Taxonomy Schema.

In XBRL terminology, a Concept is a definition of a reporting term. Concepts manifest as XML Schema [XML Schema Structures] element definitions. In the Taxonomy Schema a concept is given a concrete name and a type. The type defines the kind of data types allowed for facts measured according to the concept definition. For example, a "cash" concept would typically have a monetary type. This declares that when cash is reported, its value will be monetary. In contrast, a "accountingPoliciesNote" concept would typically have a string type so that, when the "accountingPoliciesNote" is reported in an XBRL Instance, its value would be interpreted as a string of characters. Additional constraints on how concepts can be used are documented by additional XBRL attributes on the XML Schema [XML Schema Structures] element definitions that correspond to the concepts. See Section 5.1.1 for details.

The linkbases in a taxonomy further document the meaning of the Concepts by expressing relationships between concepts (inter-concept relationships) and by relating concepts to their documentation. See Section 5.2 for details.

A Linkbase is a collection of extended links. There are five different kinds of extended links used in taxonomies to document Concepts: definition, calculation, presentation, label and reference. The first three types of extended link express inter-concept relationships, and the last two express relationships between concept and their documentation.

The linkbases MAY be contained in a separate document from the Taxonomy Schema, and they MAY be embedded in the taxonomy schema. When a linkbase is not embedded in a taxonomy schema, the taxonomy schema MUST contain a <linkbaseRef> to point to the linkbase document if the linkbase is to be part of the taxonomy built around the taxonomy schema.

3.2 Overview of XBRL instances

While a taxonomy defines reporting Concepts, it does not contain the actual values of facts based on the defined concepts. The fact values are contained in XBRL Instances and are referred to as "facts". Besides the actual value of a fact, such as "cash is 500,000", the XBRL instance provides contextual information necessary for interpreting the fact values. For numeric facts, the XBRL instance also documents measurement accuracy and measurement Units.

An XBRL Instance can be supported by more than one taxonomy. Also, taxonomies can be interconnected, extending and modifying each other in various ways. Generally, it is necessary to consider multiple related taxonomies together when interpreting an XBRL instance. The set of related taxonomies is called a Discoverable Taxonomy Set (DTS). A DTS is a collection of Taxonomy Schemas and Linkbases. The bounds of a DTS are determined by starting from some set of documents (instance, taxonomy schema, or linkbase) and following DTS discovery rules. Although an XBRL instance can be the starting point for DTS discovery, the XBRL instance itself is not part of the DTS. Taxonomy schemas and linkbases that are used as starting points for DTS discovery are part of the DTS that they discover.

DTS rules of discovery:

Taxonomy Schemas in the DTS are those:

  1. referenced directly from an XBRL Instance using the <schemaRef> , <roleRef> , <arcroleRef> or <linkbaseRef> element. The @xlink:href attribute on the <schemaRef> , <roleRef> , <arcroleRef> or <linkbaseRef> element contains the URL of the taxonomy schema that is discovered. Every taxonomy schema that is referenced by the <schemaRef> , roleRef, arcroleRef or <linkbaseRef> element MUST be discovered.
  2. referenced from a discovered taxonomy schema via an XML Schema import or include element. Every taxonomy schema that is referenced by an import or include element in a discovered taxonomy schema MUST be discovered.
  3. referenced from a discovered Linkbase document via a <loc> element. Every taxonomy schema that is referenced by an @xlink:href attribute on a <loc> element in a discovered linkbase MUST be discovered.
  4. referenced from a discovered linkbase document via a <roleRef> element. Every taxonomy schema that is referenced by an @xlink:href attribute on a <roleRef> element in a discovered linkbase MUST be discovered.
  5. referenced from a discovered linkbase document via an <arcroleRef> element. Every taxonomy schema that is referenced by an @xlink:href attribute on an <arcroleRef> element in a discovered linkbase MUST be discovered.
  6. referenced from a discovered taxonomy schema via a <linkbaseRef> element. Every taxonomy schema that is referenced by an @xlink:href attribute on a <linkbaseRef> element in a discovered taxonomy schema MUST be discovered.

NOTE: since <redefine> is prohibited in Taxonomy Schemas it cannot play a role in DTS discovery.

Linkbase documents in the DTS are those:

  1. referenced directly from an XBRL Instance via the <linkbaseRef> element. The @xlink:href attribute contains the URL of the linkbase document being discovered. Every linkbase that is referenced by the <linkbaseRef> element MUST be discovered.
  2. referenced from a discovered taxonomy schema via the <linkbaseRef> element. The @xlink:href attribute contains the URL of the linkbase being discovered. Every linkbase that is referenced by the <linkbaseRef> element MUST be discovered.
  3. that are among the set of nodes identified by the XPath [XPath 1.0] path "//xsd:schema/xsd:annotation/xsd:appinfo/*" in a discovered taxonomy schema (Throughout this specification, schema, annotation and appinfo are all elements defined in the XML Schema namespace).
  4. referenced from a discovered linkbase document via a <loc> element. Every linkbase that contains a resource that is referenced by an @xlink:href attribute on a <loc> element in a discovered linkbase MUST be discovered.

For example, the "Financial Reporting for Commercial and Industrial Companies, US GAAP DTS" consists of well-defined Concepts within the US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) when those principles are applied to Commercial and Industrial (C&I) companies. This DTS contains an "expense" concept.

A hospital XBRL Instance may use these Concepts from the US GAAP C&I DTS as well as an additional concept "physician salaries" that is defined in a separate taxonomy. This taxonomy would include Linkbases that relate the "physician salaries" concept to the "expense" concept in the US GAAP C&I DTS. The hospital XBRL instance would have a <schemaRef> element pointing to the hospital taxonomy. This XBRL instance would be the starting place for determining the DTS that supports the XBRL instance. The discovery starts by following the <schemaRef> element to the hospital taxonomy. In the hospital taxonomy there would be a <linkbaseRef> element pointing to its linkbases. One of the linkbases contains a <loc> element pointing to the "expense" concept in one the US GAAP C&I taxonomies. The taxonomy that contains the "expense" concept would point to the other taxonomies in the US GAAP C&I DTS. Following this discovery process, all necessary taxonomies would be discovered and the result would be a DTS that includes the US GAAP C&I DTS and the hospital specific taxonomy.

As this example shows, DTSs can also be used as "building blocks" to create larger, more sophisticated DTSs. Users MAY compose groups of existing DTSs into higher-level DTSs and MAY selectively add concepts and concept relationships via extension taxonomies.

While some consuming applications might be able to perform processing on an XBRL data file without referring to a DTS, normally, the interpretation and processing of any given XBRL fact is relative to the contents of a DTS.

For example, given an XBRL Instance, to correctly produce a list of facts with the entries in the list corresponding to an ordered set of Concepts, it is necessary to find the label corresponding to each fact being listed. The labels are contained in label Extended Links. The locations of the label extended links may be specified by <linkbaseRef> elements in the Taxonomy Schemas that have been identified as supporting the facts being presented. The label extended link locations may also be specified by <linkbaseRef> elements in the XBRL instance itself.

When processing an XBRL Instance, consuming applications MUST use all of the linkbases referenced directly or indirectly in this way, if they are relevant to the processing activities. All references to Taxonomy Schemas and linkbases MUST be resolved when determining the DTS supporting an XBRL instance.

3.3 Data integrity and confidentiality

There are many applications that require business information to be transmitted securely, with a particular emphasis on data integrity (leading to the use of hash totals, etc.) and with confidentiality (leading to the use of cryptographic means of protection). XBRL deliberately provides neither of these mechanisms, since its focus is on transmission of actual content in an agreed-upon format. it is assumed that, like any other block of data, data integrity can be enhanced by adding redundant error correction bytes, by cryptographic hashing and signing with a private key, etc. These mechanisms are all outside the scope of XBRL.

An XBRL Instance does not have to be aware of whether all or some of it has been manipulated to be signed, encrypted, canonicalised, compressed, etc. By the time XBRL processing has to take place, all of those manipulations will have been unwound, and the XBRL payload will be free of any evidence of those operations.

3.4 Validation

XBRL Instances, XBRL Linkbases and XBRL Taxonomy Schemas MUST comply with the syntax requirements imposed in this specification. Many of these syntax requirements are expressed using XML Schemas so a part of the validation process can be performed using XML Schema validation software. Some of these syntax requirements are not or cannot be expressed using XML Schemas and so, MUST be handled using other validation technologies.

Consuming applications MAY also check that the data in an XBRL Instance is consistent with the semantics expressed in the DTS supporting the instance. Semantic inconsistencies do not invalidate the XBRL instances in which they occur. However, this specification identifies the semantic inconsistencies that can be tested for by fully conformant XBRL processors.

3.5 XLink in XBRL

Links between XML fragments occur in many forms in XBRL. There are links between XBRL Instances and their supporting DTS. There are links between XBRL instance facts and the footnotes that describe relationships between those facts. There are links between Concept syntax definitions and their semantics, defined in linkbases. The semantics themselves are expressed in the networks of links that constitute the linkbases. XBRL expresses all of these links using the syntax defined in the XLink specification [XLINK]. XBRL uses both the simple links and the Extended Links defined in the [XLINK] specification.

The [XLINK] specification establishes the syntax and semantics for a set of attributes in the [XLINK] namespace, http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink. These attributes can then be used on elements defined in another namespace to document various kinds of links between XML fragments. Many of these attributes are used extensively in XBRL. Others have no semantics that are relevant to the links defined by XBRL. These other attributes are permitted by the XML Schema syntax constraints but they are not documented or given any specific semantics in this specification. Examples include the @xlink:show and the @xlink:actuate attributes.

This section documents the generic forms of the simple links and the Extended Links used in XBRL. Specific elements that use the simple link or extended link syntax are documented in detail in the relevant sections of this specification dealing with the syntax of XBRL instances or the syntax of XBRL taxonomies.

The syntax of the generic [XLINK] structures used by XBRL is constrained by two XML Schemas: the xlink-2003-12-31.xsd (normative) that defines the syntax for the [XLINK] attributes; and the xl-2003-12-31.xsd (normative) that defines the content models for the various kinds of link-related elements defined by this specification.

3.5.1 Simple links

A simple link is a link that points from one resource to another [XLINK] http://www.w3.org/TR/xlink/#simple-links. Some examples of how XBRL uses simple links are:

The XML Schema constraints on the simple links used by XBRL are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
<complexType name="simpleType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Type for the simple links defined in XBRL
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="anyType">
<attributeGroup ref="xlink:simpleType"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:href" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:arcrole" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:role" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:title" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:show" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:actuate" use="optional"/>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
<element name="simple" type="xl:simpleType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The abstract element at the head of the simple link substitution group.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>

3.5.1.1 The @xlink:type attribute on simple links

The @xlink:type attribute MUST occur and MUST have the fixed content "simple".

3.5.1.2 The @xlink:href attribute on simple links

A simple link MUST have an @xlink:href attribute. The @xlink:href attribute MUST be a URI. The URI MUST point to an XML document or to an XML fragment within an XML document. If the URI is relative, it MUST be resolved to obtain an absolute URI as specified in XML Base specification [XML Base]. For details on the allowable forms of XPointer [XPOINTER] syntax in the URI see Section 3.5.4

3.5.1.3 The @xlink:role attribute on simple links (optional)

The optional @xlink:role attribute MUST take URI values. If it is provided, the @xlink:role attribute MUST NOT be empty.

3.5.1.4 The @xlink:arcrole attribute on simple links (optional)

If it occurs, the @xlink:arcrole attribute MUST NOT be an empty string.

3.5.1.5 The @xml:base attribute on simple links (optional)

The @xml:base attribute [XML Base] MAY appear on the simple links, participating in the resolution of relative URIs specified in their @xlink:href attributes.

3.5.2 The <linkbase> element

The [XLINK] specification defines linkbases in the following way: "documents containing collections of inbound and third-party links are called link databases, or linkbases" [XLINK] (http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xlink-20010627/#dt-linkbase). While the syntax for Concepts is defined in Taxonomy Schemas, the semantics of those concepts are defined in XBRL Linkbases. Linkbases are Extended Links or they are elements that contain extended links. Linkbases MAY also contain <documentation> elements.

The <linkbase> element is intended to be used as a linkbase container. The XML Schema constraints on the <linkbase> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="linkbase">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the linkbase element. Used to contain a set of zero or more extended link elements.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:roleRef"/>
<element ref="link:arcroleRef"/>
<element ref="xl:extended"/>
</choice>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="optional"/>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

Example 1: A skeletal linkbase

<linkbase
  xmlns:samp
="http://www.xbrl.org/sample"

  xmlns:xsi
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"

  xmlns:xbrli
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance"

  xmlns
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns:xlink
="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"

  xmlns:xl
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.xbrl.org/sample samp001.xsd" xml:base="http://www.xbrl.org/sample">
<calculationLink xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/link" xlink:type="extended">
<!-- ... -->
</calculationLink>
</linkbase>

Meaning: Use of <linkbase> as the root element, holding namespace prefix definitions and the @schemaLocation attribute. The "xml:" prefix need not be declared. One extended link element, the <calculationLink> , is contained in the linkbase.

3.5.2.1 The @id attribute on <linkbase> elements (optional)

The <linkbase> element MAY have an @id attribute. The value of the @id attribute MUST conform to the [XML] rules for attributes with the ID type (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml#NT-TokenizedType).

3.5.2.2 The @xml:base attribute on <linkbase> elements (optional)

The @xml:base attribute [XML Base] MAY appear on the <linkbase> element, participating in the resolution of relative URIs in the contained extended links.

3.5.2.3 <Documentation> elements in <linkbase> elements (optional)

All <linkbase> elements MAY also contain <documentation> elements.

The XML Schema constraints on the <documentation> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
<complexType name="documentationType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Element type to use for documentation of extended links and linkbases.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<simpleContent>
<extension base="string">
<anyAttribute namespace="##other" processContents="lax"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<element name="documentation" type="xl:documentationType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract element to use for documentation of extended links and linkbases.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>
<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="documentation" type="xl:documentationType" substitutionGroup="xl:documentation">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Concrete element to use for documentation of extended links and linkbases.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>

The <documentation> element MUST have string content. The <documentation> element MAY contain any attribute that is not defined in the XBRL Linkbase Namespace, http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase. For example, the <documentation> element MAY use the @xml:lang attribute to indicate the language used for the documentation.

3.5.2.4 The <roleRef> element (optional)

The <roleRef> element is used to resolve custom @xlink:role values that are used in a Linkbase or XBRL Instance (for <footnoteLink> and <footnote> ). The <roleRef> element is a simple link, as defined in Section 3.5.1. The <roleRef> element points to the <roleType> element in a Taxonomy Schema document that declares the @xlink:role attribute value (see Section 5.1.3). The value, V, of the @xlink:role attribute on a Standard Resource Element or extended link element MUST be an absolute URI. If V does not correspond to a role defined by this specification, it is a custom role; in this case the ancestor <linkbase> element of the resource or extended link element MUST have a child <roleRef> element with V as the value of its @roleURI attribute.

Note that <roleRef> s are only required for roles that are used on Standard Extended Links and Standard Resources. The standard extended links are those defined by this specification: <definitionLink> , <calculationLink> , <presentationLink> , <labelLink> , <referenceLink> and <footnoteLink> . Likewise, the standard resources are <label> , <footnote> , and <reference> .

The XML Schema constraints on the <roleRef> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="roleRef" substitutionGroup="xl:simple">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the roleRef element - used to link to resolve xlink:role attribute values to the roleType element declaration.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<extension base="xl:simpleType">
<attribute name="roleURI" type="xlink:nonEmptyURI" use="required">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This attribute contains the role name.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</attribute>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>
3.5.2.4.1 The @xlink:type attribute on <roleRef> elements

The @xlink:type attribute MUST occur and MUST have the fixed content "simple".

3.5.2.4.2 The @xlink:href attribute on <roleRef> elements

A <roleRef> element MUST have an @xlink:href attribute. The @xlink:href attribute MUST be a URI. The URI MUST point to a <roleType> element in a Taxonomy Schema document. If the URI reference is relative, its absolute version MUST be determined as specified in [XML Base] before use. For details on the allowable forms of XPointer [XPOINTER] syntax in the URI see Section 3.5.4. All files referenced by an @xlink:href attribute MUST be discovered as part of the DTS, regardless of what Linkbase the <roleRef> appears in.

3.5.2.4.3 The @xlink:arcrole attribute on <roleRef> elements (optional)

The @xlink:arcrole attribute MAY be used on the <roleRef> element. No semantics are defined for the @xlink:arcrole attribute when it occurs on the <roleRef> element.

3.5.2.4.4 The @xlink:role attribute on <roleRef> elements (optional)

The optional @xlink:role attribute MUST take URI values. If it is provided, the @xlink:role attribute MUST NOT be empty. No semantics are defined for the @xlink:role attribute when it occurs on the <roleRef> element.

3.5.2.4.5 The @roleURI attribute

The @roleURI attribute MUST occur on the <roleRef> element. The @roleURI attribute identifies the @xlink:role attribute value that is defined by the XML resource that is pointed to by the <roleRef> element. The value of this attribute MUST match the value of the @roleURI attribute on the <roleType> element that the <roleRef> element is pointing to. Within a Linkbase or an XBRL Instance there MUST NOT be more than one roleRef element with the same @roleURI attribute value.

3.5.2.5 The <arcroleRef> element (optional)

The <arcroleRef> element is used to resolve custom @xlink:arcrole values that are used in a Linkbase or an XBRL Instance (for <footnoteArc> ). The <arcroleRef> element is a simple link, as defined in Section 3.5.1. The <arcroleRef> element points to the <arcroleType> element in a Taxonomy Schema document that declares the @xlink:arcrole attribute value (see Section 5.1.4). The value, V, of the @xlink:arcrole attribute on a Standard Arc Element in a Standard Extended Link Element  MUST be an absolute URI. If V does not correspond to an arcrole defined by this specification, it is a custom arcrole; in this case the ancestor <linkbase> element of the Arc element MUST have a child <arcroleRef> element with V as the value of its @arcroleURI attribute.

Note that <arcroleRef> s are only required for arcroles that are used on Standard Arcs appearing in standard extended links. The standard arcs are those defined by this specification: <definitionArc> , <calculationArc> , <presentationArc> , <labelArc> , <referenceArc> and <footnoteArc> .

The XML Schema definition of the <arcroleRef> element is shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="arcroleRef" substitutionGroup="xl:simple">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the roleRef element - used to link to resolve xlink:arcrole attribute values to the arcroleType element declaration.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<extension base="xl:simpleType">
<attribute name="arcroleURI" type="xlink:nonEmptyURI" use="required">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This attribute contains the arc role name.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</attribute>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>
3.5.2.5.1 The @xlink:type attribute on <arcroleRef> elements

The @xlink:type attribute MUST occur and MUST have the fixed content "simple".

3.5.2.5.2 The @xlink:href attribute on <arcroleRef> elements

An <arcroleRef> element MUST have an @xlink:href attribute. The @xlink:href attribute MUST be a URI. The URI MUST point to an <arcroleType> element in a Taxonomy Schema document. If the URI reference is relative, its absolute version MUST be determined as specified in [XML Base] before use. For details on the allowable forms of XPointer [XPOINTER] syntax in the URI see Section 3.5.4. All files referenced by an @xlink:href attribute MUST be discovered as part of the DTS, regardless of what Linkbase the <arcroleRef> appears in.

3.5.2.5.3 The @xlink:arcrole attribute on <arcroleRef> elements (optional)

The @xlink:arcrole attribute MAY be used on the <arcroleRef> element. No semantics are defined for the @xlink:arcrole attribute when it occurs on the <arcroleRef> element.

3.5.2.5.4 The @xlink:role attribute on <arcroleRef> elements (optional)

The optional @xlink:role attribute MUST take URI values. If it is provided, the @xlink:role attribute MUST NOT be empty. No semantics are defined for the @xlink:role attribute when it occurs on the <arcroleRef> element.

3.5.2.5.5 The @arcroleURI attribute

The @arcroleURI attribute MUST occur on the <arcroleRef> element. The @arcroleURI attribute identifies the xlink:arcrole attribute value that is defined by the XML resource that is pointed to by the <arcroleRef> element. The value of this attribute MUST match the value of the @arcroleURI attribute on the <arcroleType> element that the arcroleRef element is pointing to. Within a Linkbase or an XBRL Instance there MUST NOT be more than one <arcroleRef> element with the same @arcroleURI attribute value.

3.5.3 Extended links

Extended Links are [XLINK] annotated XML fragments that document a set of relationships between resources. XBRL extended links document relationships between resources that are XML fragments.

The generic XML Schema constraints on the extended links used by XBRL are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
<complexType name="extendedType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Generic extended link type
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="anyType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="xl:documentation"/>
<element ref="xl:locator"/>
<element ref="xl:arc"/>
<element ref="xl:resource"/>
</choice>
<attributeGroup ref="xlink:extendedType"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:role" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:title" use="optional"/>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="optional"/>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
<element name="extended" type="xl:extendedType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract extended link element at head of extended link substitution group.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>

XBRL extended links MAY contain five different types of child elements:

  • <documentation> elements;
  • title elements (titles);
  • locator elements (Locators);
  • resource elements (resources); and
  • arc elements (Arcs).

The <documentation> element is for XBRL documentation purposes only and has no [XLINK]-specific semantics. Titles, Locators, resources and Arcs are identified by specific [XLINK] attributes. If the titles, Locators, resources and arcs are not direct children of an extended element, then they have no [XLINK] specified meaning, and hence have no XBRL-specified meaning.

The attributes for XBRL extended links are described below.

3.5.3.1 The @id attribute on extended links (optional)

Extended Links MAY have an @id attribute. The value of the @id attribute MUST conform to the [XML] rules for attributes with the ID type (see http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml#NT-TokenizedType for details). The @id attribute identifies an extended link (see Section 4.8) so that it may be referenced directly by simple links.

3.5.3.2 The @xlink:type attribute on extended links

The @xlink:type attribute MUST occur on extended links and MUST have the fixed content "extended".

3.5.3.3 The @xlink:role attribute on extended links

The @xlink:role attribute MUST occur on Standard Extended Links. The content of the @xlink:role attribute is referred to as the extended link role value. The extended link role value MUST be used by applications to partition extended links into separate networks of relationships. See Section 5.2 for details on how the semantics embodied in extended link arcs is contingent on extended link arc role values. One standard extended link role is defined by this specification:

http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/link

Standard extended links may use this role without the need for a <roleType> (see Section 5.1.3) and roleRef (see Section 3.5.2.4)

3.5.3.4 The @xml:base attribute on extended links (optional)

The @xml:base attribute [XML Base] MAY appear on the extended links, participating in the resolution of relative URIs that they contain.

3.5.3.5 Documentation elements in extended links (optional)

All XBRL extended links MAY contain <documentation> elements.

The <documentation> elements in extended links conform to the same syntax requirements that apply to <documentation> elements in Linkbase elements. See Section 3.5.2.3 for details.

3.5.3.6 Titles in extended links (optional)

All XBRL Extended Links MAY contain titles. Titles may be used to document extended links, as an alternative to the more limited @xlink:title attributes. They are particularly useful where information needs to be provided in multiple languages. Titles have no XBRL specified semantics. To use a title in an extended link, it is necessary to define a new element that is in the substitution group for the abstract title element.

The XML Schema constraints on the titles are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
<complexType name="titleType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Type for the abstract title element - used as a title element template.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="anyType">
<attributeGroup ref="xlink:titleType"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
<element name="title" type="xl:titleType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Generic title element for use in extended link documentation. Used on extended links, arcs, locators. See http://www.w3.org/TR/xlink/#title-element for details.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>
3.5.3.6.1 The @xlink:type attribute on titles

The @xlink:type attribute MUST occur on all titles and MUST have the fixed content "title".

3.5.3.7 Locators

Locators are child elements of an Extended Link that point to resources external to the extended link itself. All XBRL extended links MAY contain locators.

The XML Schema constraints on generic Locators are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
<complexType name="locatorType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Generic locator type.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="anyType">
<sequence>
<element ref="xl:title" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
<attributeGroup ref="xlink:locatorType"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:href" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:label" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:role" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:title" use="optional"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
<element name="locator" type="xl:locatorType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract locator element to be used as head of locator substitution group for all extended link locators in XBRL.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>

For consistency, the <loc> element is the only Locator defined for use in XBRL Extended Links. The <loc> element is a concrete version of the generic locator. The XML Schema syntax constraints on the <loc> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="loc" type="xl:locatorType" substitutionGroup="xl:locator">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Concrete locator element. The loc element is the XLink locator element for all extended links in XBRL.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>
3.5.3.7.1 The @xlink:type attribute on locators

The @xlink:type attribute MUST occur on all Locators and MUST have the fixed content "locator".

3.5.3.7.2 The @xlink:href attribute on locators

A Locator MUST have an @xlink:href attribute. The @xlink:href attribute MUST be a URI. The URI MUST point to an XML document or to one or more XML fragments within an XML document. If the URI is relative, it MUST be resolved to obtain an absolute URI as specified in XML Base specification [XML Base]. For details on the allowable forms of XPointer [XPOINTER] syntax in the URI see Section 3.5.4. All files referenced by an @xlink:href attribute MUST be discovered as part of the DTS, regardless of what Linkbase the locator appears in.

3.5.3.7.3 The @xlink:label attribute on locators

The @xlink:label attribute on a Locator identifies the locator so that Arcs in the same Extended Link can reference it. Multiple locators and resources in an extended link MAY have the same @xlink:label attribute value. The @xlink:label attribute value MUST be an NCName [XML] (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names/#NT-NCName). This requirement means that @xlink:label attributes MUST begin with a letter or an underscore.

3.5.3.7.4 Titles on locators (optional)

Locators MAY contain titles. Title children of locators MUST conform to the same restrictions applying to title children of Extended Links. See Section 3.5.3.6 for details.

3.5.3.8 Resources

Some XBRL Extended Links MAY contain resources. A resource is an XML fragment in an extended link that is related to other resources in the extended link and to resources outside of the extended link.

The XML Schema constraints on generic resources are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
<complexType name="resourceType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Generic type for the resource type element
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent mixed="true">
<restriction base="anyType">
<attributeGroup ref="xlink:resourceType"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:label" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:role" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:title" use="optional"/>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="optional"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
<element name="resource" type="xl:resourceType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract element to use as head of resource element substitution group.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>

The content of generic resources is very loosely constrained. More specific constraints are applied by this specification for specific kinds of resources in specific kinds of extended links.

3.5.3.8.1 The @xlink:type attribute on resources

The @xlink:type attribute MUST occur on all resources and MUST have the fixed content "resource".

3.5.3.8.2 The @xlink:label attribute on resources

The @xlink:label attribute on a resource identifies the resource so that Arcs in the same Extended Link can reference it. The @xlink:label attribute on resources conforms to the same requirements applying to the @xlink:label attribute on Locators. See Section 3.5.3.7.3 for details. Several resources in an extended link MAY have the same label.

3.5.3.8.3 The @xlink:role attribute on resources (optional)

The optional @xlink:role attribute on a resource is referred to as the resource role value.

Resources MAY contain an @xlink:role attribute, which SHOULD distinguish between resources based on the nature of the information that they contain. Some of the resources defined in this specification have a set of standard resource role values defined for them. Custom reference roles can be defined using roleTypes (see Section 5.1.3).

3.5.3.8.4 The @id attribute on resources (optional)

The @id attribute MAY occur on all resources in XBRL Extended Links. The value of the @id attribute MUST conform to the [XML] rules for attributes with the ID type (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml#NT-TokenizedType). The @id attribute identifies the resource so that it may be referenced by locators in other extended links for the purposes of Arc prohibition (see Section 3.5.3.9.5).

3.5.3.9 Arcs

All XBRL Extended Links MAY contain arcs. Arcs document relationships between resources identified by Locators in extended links or occurring as resources in extended links.

The XML Schema constraints on generic Arcs are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
<simpleType name="useEnum">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Enumerated values for the use attribute on extended link arcs.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="NMTOKEN">
<enumeration value="optional"/>
<enumeration value="prohibited"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
<complexType name="arcType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
basic extended link arc type - extended where necessary for specific arcs Extends the generic arc type by adding use, priority and order attributes.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="anyType">
<sequence>
<element ref="xl:title" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
<attributeGroup ref="xlink:arcType"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:from" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:to" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:arcrole" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:title" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:show" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:actuate" use="optional"/>
<attribute name="order" type="decimal" use="optional"/>
<attribute name="use" type="xl:useEnum" use="optional"/>
<attribute name="priority" type="integer" use="optional"/>
<anyAttribute namespace="##other" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
<element name="arc" type="xl:arcType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract element to use as head of arc element substitution group.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>

Arcs represent relationships between the XML fragments referenced by their [XLINK] attributes: @xlink:from and @xlink:to. The @xlink:from and the @xlink:to attributes represent each side of the arc. These two attributes contain the @xlink:label attribute values of Locators and resources within the same Extended Link as the arc itself. For a locator, the referenced XML fragments comprise the set of XML elements identified by the xlink:href attribute on the locator. For a resource, the referenced XML fragment is the resource element itself.

An Arc MAY reference multiple XML fragments on each side ("from" and "to") of the arc. This can occur if there are multiple Locators and/or resources in the Extended Link with the same @xlink:label attribute value identified by the @xlink:from or @xlink:to attribute of the arc. Such arcs represent a set of one-to-one relationships between each of the XML fragments on their "from" side and each of the XML fragments on their "to" side.

Example 2: One-to-One arc relationships [XLINK]

This presentation link contains an Arc that relates one XBRL Concept to one other XBRL concept. The XML fragment on the "from" side is the conceptA element definition, found in the example.xsd Taxonomy Schema. The XML fragment on the "to" side is the conceptB element definition, also found in the example.xsd taxonomy schema.

<presentationLink xlink:type="extended" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/link">
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="a" xlink:href="example.xsd#conceptA"/>
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="b" xlink:href="example.xsd#conceptB"/>
<presentationArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="a" xlink:to="b" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/parent-child" order="1"/>
</presentationLink>

Example 3: One-to-Many arc relationships [XLINK]

This label link contains a single Arc that relates one XBRL Concept to two XBRL labels. This is accomplished by giving each of the label resources the same @xlink:label attribute value, which, in turn, is the same as the @xlink:to attribute value on the arc. The arc represents two relationships, one between conceptA and the standard label ("Concept A") and another between conceptA and the total label ("Total of Concept A").

<labelLink xlink:type="extended" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/link">
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="a" xlink:href="example.xsd#conceptA"/>
<label xlink:type="resource" xml:lang="en" xlink:label="lab_a" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/label">Concept A</label>
<label xlink:type="resource" xml:lang="en" xlink:label="lab_a" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/totalLabel">Total of Concept A</label>
<labelArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="a" xlink:to="lab_a" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/concept-label"/>
</labelLink>

This Extended Link could also express the same two relationships but be written with separate @xlink:label attribute values for each label and two arcs.

<labelLink xlink:type="extended" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/link">
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="a" xlink:href="example.xsd#conceptA"/>
<label xlink:type="resource" xml:lang="en" xlink:label="lab_a_standard" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/label">Concept A</label>
<label xlink:type="resource" xml:lang="en" xlink:label="lab_a_total" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/totalLabel">Total of Concept A</label>
<labelArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="a" xlink:to="lab_a_standard" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/concept-label"/>
<labelArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="a" xlink:to="lab_a_total" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/concept-label"/>
</labelLink>

Semantically, these two extended links represent the same set of relationships between the concept and its labels.

Example 4: Many-to-Many arc relationships [XLINK]

This label link contains a single arc that relates two Concepts to two labels. This is accomplished by each of the Locators for the concepts having the same @xlink:label attribute value, which in turn is the same as the @xlink:from attribute value on the arc, and by each of the label resources having the same @xlink:label attribute value, which in turn is the same as the @xlink:to attribute value.

<labelLink xlink:type="extended" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/link">
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="ab" xlink:href="example.xsd#conceptA"/>
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="ab" xlink:href="example.xsd#conceptB"/>
<label xlink:type="resource" xml:lang="en" xlink:label="lab_ab" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/label">Concept A or B</label>
<label xlink:type="resource" xml:lang="en" xlink:label="lab_ab" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/totalLabel">Total of Concept A or B</label>
<labelArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="ab" xlink:to="lab_ab" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/concept-label"/>
</labelLink>

The arc represents 4 relationships as follows:

  1. between conceptA and the label resource "Concept A or B"
  2. between conceptA and the label resource "Total of Concept A or B"
  3. between conceptB and the label resource "Concept A or B"
  4. between conceptB and the label resource "Total of Concept A or B"

Like the one-to-many example, this Extended Link could be re-written as 4 one-to-one arcs, where each locator and each resource has a unique @xlink:label attribute value. It could also be re-written as two one-to-two arcs where the label resources have the same @xlink:label attribute value and the locators have unique @xlink:label attribute values or vice versa.

There MUST not be any [XLINK] duplicate arcs within an Extended Link. [XLINK] duplicate arcs are arcs that have the same pair of values for the @xlink:from and @xlink:to attributes within an extended link.

Example 5: Correct use of arcs according to [XLINK]

[XLINK] forbids duplicate Arcs within a single Extended Link and ignores arcrole in determining duplicates so the following example is invalid (see Section 5.2.6 for details of <definitionLink> extended links):

<definitionLink xlink:type="extended" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/link">
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="a" xlink:href="example.xsd#conceptA"/>
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="b" xlink:href="example.xsd#conceptB"/>
<definitionArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="a" xlink:to="b" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/general-special"/>
<definitionArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="a" xlink:to="b" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/requires-element"/>
</definitionLink>

instead, an alternative construction that is legal according to [XLINK], such as the following, MUST be used:

<definitionLink xlink:type="extended" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/link">
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="a" xlink:href="example.xsd#conceptA"/>
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="b" xlink:href="example.xsd#conceptB"/>
<definitionArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="a" xlink:to="b" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/general-special"/>
</definitionLink>
<definitionLink xlink:type="extended" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/link">
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="a" xlink:href="example.xsd#conceptA"/>
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="b" xlink:href="example.xsd#conceptB"/>
<definitionArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="a" xlink:to="b" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/requires-element"/>
</definitionLink>
3.5.3.9.1 The @xlink:type attribute on arcs

The @xlink:type attribute MUST occur on all Arcs and MUST have the fixed content "arc".

3.5.3.9.2 The @xlink:from attribute

The @xlink:from attribute on an Arc MUST be equal to the value of an @xlink:label attribute of at least one Locator or resource in the same Extended Link element as the arc element itself.

The @xlink:from attribute value MUST be an NCName [XML] (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names/#NT-NCName). This requirement means that @xlink:from attributes MUST begin with a letter or an underscore.

3.5.3.9.3 The @xlink:to attribute

The @xlink:to attribute on an Arc MUST be equal to the value of an @xlink:label attribute of at least one Locator or resource in the same Extended Link element as the arc element itself.

The @xlink:to attribute value MUST be an NCName [XML] (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names/#NT-NCName). This requirement means that @xlink:to attributes MUST begin with a letter or an underscore.

3.5.3.9.4 The @xlink:arcrole attribute

The @xlink:arcrole attribute documents the specific kind of relationship being expressed by the Arc. Its value is referred to as an arc role value. A set of standard arc role values are defined and given specific meaning in this specification for each arc element. These are documented in the sections describing the specific XBRL arc elements ( <labelArc> , <referenceArc> , <calculationArc> , <definitionArc> , <presentationArc> , and <footnoteArc> ) on which they are to be used.

Custom arc role values MAY be defined in Taxonomy Schemas. The semantics for custom arc role values are defined using the <arcroleType> element (see Section 5.1.4). <arcroleType> s are discovered through <arcroleRef> elements (see Section 3.5.2.5).

3.5.3.9.5 The @order attribute (optional)

The optional @order attribute MUST have a decimal value that that indicates the order in which applications MUST display siblings when hierarchical networks of relationships are being displayed. If missing, the @order attribute value MUST default to "1". If multiple siblings in the hierarchy have the same @order attribute value, the presentation order of those siblings is application dependent. The value of the @order attribute is not restricted to integers, which is useful when there is a need to place a new sibling in between two previously defined siblings.

3.5.3.9.6 Titles on arcs (optional)

Arcs MAY contain titles. Title children of arcs MUST conform to the same restrictions applying to title children of Extended Links. See Section 3.5.3.6 for details.

3.5.3.9.7 Prohibiting and overriding relationships

A taxonomy author will generally not have write permissions on Linkbases created by other taxonomy authors. In situations where a taxonomy author needs to modify the relationships expressed in linkbases that they cannot alter directly, they may create new linkbases that contain Arcs that represent relationships that prohibit or override the specific relationships that are to be modified. Both overriding and prohibiting an existing relationship is achieved by constructing a new arc.

A prohibiting arc is an Arc that represents a prohibiting relationship or a set of prohibiting relationships. A prohibiting relationship is a relationship that negates another relationship. An overriding arc is an arc that represents an overriding relationship or a set of overriding relationships. An overriding relationship is a relationship that supersedes another relationship. Prohibition and overriding are relevant when determining the relationships in a network of relationships represented in a DTS (see Section 3.5.3.9.7.3).

Arcs that represent prohibiting and overriding relationships are controlled by two attributes, @use and @priority, which are available on all arc elements defined in this specification.

3.5.3.9.7.1 The @use attribute (optional)

The optional @use attribute MUST take one of two possible values - "optional", or "prohibited".

use="optional" indicates that the Arc represents a relationship or set of relationships that MAY participate in a network of relationships represented by arcs in a DTS (see Section 3.5.3.9.7.3 for details on networks of relationships in a DTS). This is the default value that MUST be inferred for the @use attribute if the @use attribute is not specified.

use="prohibited" indicates that this Arc represents a relationship or set of relationships that prohibit themselves and other equivalent relationships from participating in a network of relationships represented by arcs in a DTS (see Section 3.5.3.9.7.4 for details on relationship equivalency). Such relationships are referred to as prohibiting relationships.

3.5.3.9.7.2 The @priority attribute (optional)

The content of the @priority attribute MUST be an integer. The default value of the @priority attribute is "0". The @priority attribute is used when applying the rules of prohibition and overriding in a network of relationships. Each relationship has a priority equal to the value of the priority attribute on the Arc that represents the relationship.

3.5.3.9.7.3 Networks of relationships in a DTS

The Arcs expressed in the Extended Links within a DTS describe networks of relationships between XML fragments.

Individually, each Arc describes one or more relationships. However, within a DTS, only some of those relationships participate in the networks of relationships described by the DTS.

All relationships in the DTS are candidates for inclusion in the networks of relationships described by the DTS. However, some relationships are excluded from the networks of relationships described by the DTS because they are prohibited or overridden by other relationships.

All Arcs in a DTS are grouped into base sets of arcs. All arcs in a base set of arcs:

  • have the same local name, namespace and @xlink:arcrole attribute value on the arc element; and
  • are contained in extended link elements that have the same local name, namespace, and @xlink:role attribute value.

Each base set of Arcs in a DTS represents the set of candidates for inclusion in a network of relationships. For each base set of arcs in a DTS, the rules of relationship prohibition and overriding determine the subset of relationships in that base set that participate in the corresponding network of relationships represented by arcs in the DTS.

3.5.3.9.7.4 Equivalent relationships

Applying the rules of relationship prohibition and overriding requires a comparison of each relationship represented by Arcs in the base set to all other relationships represented by arcs in the base set.

Two relationships represented by Arcs in a given base set are equivalent if:

  • in the post-schema-validation infoset [XML Schema Structures] the following conditions hold:
    1. the Arcs have the same number of non-exempt attributes, and
    2. for each non-exempt attribute on the first Arc there is a corresponding S-Equal attribute on the second arc (see Section 4.10 for the definition of S-Equal)

    For the purposes of the conditions above, the 'use' and 'priority' attributes are exempt, as are any attributes from the following namespaces:

    http://www.w3.org/2000/xmlns/

    http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink

    all other attributes are non-exempt,

    NOTE: This therefore applies after the consideration of any default and fixed values specified for attributes on the Arc declaration, according to the post-schema-validation infoset [XML Schema Structures] specification

    and

  • the XML fragments on the "from" sides of the relationships are identical as defined in Section 4.10 (see Section 3.5.3.9 for an explanation of the XML fragments identified by the @xlink:from attribute on Arcs); and
  • the XML fragments on the "to" sides of the relationships are identical as defined in Section 4.10 (see Section 3.5.3.9 for an explanation of the XML fragments identified by the @xlink:to attribute on Arcs).
3.5.3.9.7.5 Rules of prohibiting and overriding relationships

The rules of prohibiting and overriding relationships employ the @use and @priority attributes on Arcs and the notion of relationship equivalence to determine, for each relationship expressed by arcs in a base set, if that relationship is included in the network of relationships for that base set of arcs.

The rules of prohibition and overriding are applied to each set of equivalent relationships represented by Arcs in the base set as follows:

  1. None of the prohibiting relationships in the set are ever included in the network of relationships represented by Arcs in the base set.
  2. If only one relationship has the highest priority and that relationship is not prohibiting, then that relationship is an overriding relationship and is included in the network of relationships for the base set. All other equivalent relationships are not included in the network of relationships for the base set of Arcs.
  3. If there is more than one relationship with the highest priority and none of them are prohibiting, then one of those highest priority relationships MUST be included in the network of relationships for the base set of Arcs. The relationship that is chosen for inclusion is an overriding relationship. All of the other equivalent relationships MUST be excluded from the network of relationships (these are overridden relationships) for the base set of arcs. The choice of which relationship is included in the network of relationships for the base set of arcs is application dependent.
  4. If there are one or more relationships with the highest priority and at least one of those relationships is prohibiting, then none of the equivalent relationships are included in the network of relationships (these equivalent relationships, which are not prohibiting relationships, are prohibited relationships) for the base set of Arcs.

Example 6: Prohibiting and overriding relationships

The following set of examples includes some unlikely but nevertheless possible situations and demonstrates how they are dealt with according to the rules of prohibiting and overriding relationships. These examples anticipate a series of extension taxonomies being created, possibly by different authors who do not have write access to the taxonomies that they are extending.

If the following two Arcs in a base set of arcs represent a set of equivalent relationships, then neither of those relationships is included in the network of relationships associated with that base set of arcs.

  • Arc A with use="optional" and priority="1" represents relationship A
  • Arc B with use="prohibited" and priority="2" represents relationship B

Arc B has the higher priority and represents a prohibiting relationship. Therefore relationship B excludes relationship A from the network of relationships associated with the base set of arcs. Relationship B is prohibiting and so, by definition, is excluded from the network of relationships associated with the base set of arcs (by application of rules i and iv).

If another arc is subsequently introduced into the base set of arcs as follows:

  • Arc C with use="prohibited" and priority="3" represents relationship C

and relationship C is equivalent to the relationships A and B, then, since it has the highest priority, it is a prohibiting relationship. Therefore relationship C excludes relationship A from the network of relationships associated with the base set of arcs. Relationships B and C are prohibiting and so, by definition, are excluded from the network of relationships associated with the base set of arcs (by application of rules i and iv).

If another arc is subsequently introduced into the base set of arcs as follows:

  • Arc D with use="optional" and priority="4" represents relationship D

and relationship D is equivalent to the relationships A, B and C, then, since it has the highest priority, it is an overriding relationship. Relationships A, B and C are therefore not included in the network of relationships associated with the base set of arcs. This relationship D thus effectively overrides the effect of the prohibiting relationships B and C and therefore is included in the network of relationships associated with the base set of arcs (by application of rule ii).

If another arc is subsequently introduced into the base set of arcs as follows:

  • Arc E with use="optional" and priority="4" represents relationship E

and relationship E is equivalent to the relationships A, B, C and D, then, since it has the same priority as D, it is application dependent as to which of D and E is the overriding relationship. Relationships A, B and C are still not included in the network of relationships associated with the base set of arcs (by application of rule iii). Since the relationships are equivalent, the fact that it is application dependent as to which of D and E is the overriding relationship is unimportant because the choice of one over the other does not affect the semantics being expressed.

If another arc is subsequently introduced into the base set of arcs as follows:

  • Arc F with use="prohibited" and priority="4" represents relationship F

and relationship F is equivalent to the relationships A, B, C, D and E, then, since it is one of the relationships with the highest priority, it is a prohibiting relationship and thus none of the equivalent relationships A, B, C, D, E or F are included in the network of relationships associated with the base set of arcs (by application of rule iv).

The process of dividing all discovered arcs in a DTS into base sets and applying the rules of prohibition and overriding results in a set of networks of relationships, where each network contains relationships that:

  • are represented by arcs that have the same local name, namespace and @xlink:arcrole attribute value on the arcType element; and
  • are represented by arcs that are contained in extendedType elements with the same local name, namespace, and @xlink:role attribute value; and
  • are not prohibited, prohibiting or overridden relationships.

3.5.4 Use of XPointer in URI fragment identifiers

To point to a particular XML element, URIs used in [XLINK] hrefs MUST end in a fragment identifier. According to the [XLINK] specification, XPointer [XPOINTER] syntax is allowed in the fragment identifier. The format of the fragment identifier MUST conform to the requirements set out for shorthand pointers (http://www.w3.org/TR/xptr-framework/#shorthand) or to the requirements set out for a scheme-based pointer (http://www.w3.org/TR/xptr-framework/#scheme). The only scheme allowed for scheme-based pointers in XBRL links is the element scheme [ELEMENT-SCHEME].

Example 7: Example @xlink:href values

Example Meaning
#f1 The fragment of the current document with an @id attribute equal to "f1"
us_bs_v21.xsd#currentAssets The element of the document us_bs_v21.xsd with an @id attribute equal to "currentAssets"
us_bs_v21.xsd#element(/1/14) The element of the document us_bs_v21.xsd that is the 14 child (in document order) of the root element.
us_bs_v21.xsd#element(currentAssets) The element of the document us_bs_v21.xsd with an @id attribute equal to "currentAssets"

4 XBRL instances

An overview of XBRL Instances is provided in Section 3.2.

XBRL Instances are XML fragments with root element, <xbrl> . XBRL instances contain facts, with each fact corresponding to a Concept defined in their supporting DTS. XBRL instances also contain <context> and <unit> elements that provide additional information needed to interpret the facts in the instance.

Facts can be simple, in which case their values are expressed as simple content (except in the case of simple facts whose values are expressed as a ratio), and facts can be compound, in which case their values are made up from other simple and/or compound facts. Simple facts are expressed using items (and are referred to as items in this specification) and compound facts are expressed using Tuples (and are referred to as tuples in this specification).

Although the syntax for any given Tuple or item can only be defined in a single Taxonomy Schema, an XBRL Instance MAY contain XBRL items and tuples from any number of taxonomy schemas.

XBRL Instances identify the taxonomy schemas and XBRL Linkbases that make up the starting points for discovery of the DTS that supports them. Section 3.2 documents how the DTS supporting an XBRL instance is to be determined.

The Taxonomy Schemas and the Linkbases used as starting points in DTS discovery are identified via the <schemaRef> elements and <linkbaseRef> elements in XBRL Instances respectively. This enables XBRL instances to exert some control over the interpretation of the information that they report.

For example, the same set of elements defined in a Taxonomy Schema might have Spanish and Portuguese literature references defined in different Linkbases (that are not referenced directly from that schema). An instance might provide access to both or neither of these linkbases in order to specify which set of references the producer considers to be more appropriate.

An XBRL Instance MUST comply with the rules specified herein. The syntax for XBRL instances is constrained using a set of XML Schemas. Example elements defined in the XBRL instance schema, xbrl-instance-2003-12-31.xsd (normative), include <xbrl> , <item> , <context> , <unit> , and <tuple> . All XBRL instances MUST be valid XML documents as defined by XML Schema [XML Schema Structures].

The semantics of XBRL Instances and their contents are specified only insofar as they impact the operation of software applications that use this specification.

4.1 The <xbrl> element

Expressing even a single fact in an XBRL instance requires multiple elements: at least one item element (see Section 4.1.1) and a <context> element containing sub-elements (see Section 4.7 below). Therefore, a container element is necessary to serve as the root element of an XBRL Instance. This container is the <xbrl> element. If multiple "data islands" of XBRL mark-up are included in a larger document, the <xbrl> element is the container for each.

The XML Schema constraints on the <xbrl> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="xbrl">
<annotation>
<documentation>
XBRL instance root element.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<sequence>
<element ref="link:schemaRef" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<element ref="link:linkbaseRef" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<element ref="link:roleRef" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<element ref="link:arcroleRef" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xbrli:item"/>
<element ref="xbrli:tuple"/>
<element ref="xbrli:context"/>
<element ref="xbrli:unit"/>
<element ref="link:footnoteLink"/>
</choice>
</sequence>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="optional"/>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

Example 8: Use of xbrl as the root element

<xbrl
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns:ci
="http://www.xbrl.org/us/gaap/ci/2003/usfr-ci-2003"

  xmlns:xsi
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"

  xmlns:s
="http://mycompany.com/xbrl/taxonomy"

  xmlns:xbrli
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance"

  xmlns:xlink
="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"

  xmlns:xl
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink"

  xmlns
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.xbrl.org/us/fr/ci/2003/usfr-ci-2003 http://www.xbrl.org/us/fr/ci/2000-07-31/usfr-ci-2003.xsd">
<link:schemaRef xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="http://www.xbrl.org/us/fr/ci/2000-07-31/usfr-ci-2003.xsd"/>
<ci:assets precision="3" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">727</ci:assets>
<ci:liabilities precision="3" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">635</ci:liabilities>
<context id="c1">
<!-- ... -->
</context>
<unit id="u1">
<!-- ... -->
</unit>
</xbrl>

Meaning: <xbrl> holds namespace prefix definitions and the @schemaLocation attribute.

4.1.1 The @id attribute on <xbrl> elements (optional)

The <xbrl> element MAY have an @id attribute. The value of the @id attribute MUST conform to the [XML] rules for attributes with the ID type (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml#NT-TokenizedType).

4.1.2 The @xml:base attribute on <xbrl> elements (optional)

The <xbrl> element MAY have an @xml:base attribute. The @xml:base attribute [XML Base] MAY appear on the <xbrl> element, participating in the resolution of relative URIs in the XBRL Instance.

4.2 The <schemaRef> element in XBRL Instances

Every XBRL Instance MUST contain at least one <schemaRef> element. The <schemaRef> element is a simple link, as defined in Section 3.5.1. The <schemaRef> element MUST occur as a child element of an <xbrl> element. All <schemaRef> elements in an XBRL instance MUST occur before other children of the <xbrl> element, in document order.

In an XBRL Instance, the <schemaRef> element points to a Taxonomy Schema that becomes part of the DTS supporting that XBRL instance.

NOTE: XBRL instance creators should be aware that, if there are inconsistencies between the information conveyed by a schemaRef element and that conveyed by @schemaLocation attributes elsewhere in the instance, processors may have difficulty processing the instance correctly.

The XML Schema definition of the <schemaRef> element is shown below.

<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
<complexType name="simpleType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Type for the simple links defined in XBRL
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="anyType">
<attributeGroup ref="xlink:simpleType"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:href" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:arcrole" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:role" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:title" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:show" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:actuate" use="optional"/>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</schema>
<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="schemaRef" type="xl:simpleType" substitutionGroup="xl:simple">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the schemaRef element - used to link to XBRL taxonomy schemas from XBRL instances.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>

4.2.1 The @xlink:type attribute on <schemaRef> elements

The @xlink:type attribute MUST occur and MUST have the fixed content "simple".

4.2.2 The @xlink:href attribute on <schemaRef> elements

A <schemaRef> element MUST have an @xlink:href attribute. The @xlink:href attribute MUST be a URI. The URI MUST point to an XML Schema. If the URI reference is relative, its absolute version MUST be determined as specified in [XML Base] before use. For details on the allowable forms of XPointer [XPOINTER] syntax in the URI see Section 3.5.4.

4.2.3 The @xlink:arcrole attribute on <schemaRef> elements (optional)

The @xlink:arcrole attribute MAY be used on the <schemaRef> element. It is given no semantics by this specification. The @xlink:arcrole attribute value MUST be a URI value as defined by the [XLINK] specification.

4.2.4 The @xlink:role attribute on <schemaRef> elements (optional)

The @xlink:role attribute MAY be used on the <schemaRef> element. No semantics are defined for the @xlink:role attribute when it occurs on the <schemaRef> element. The @xlink:role attribute value MUST be a URI value as defined by the [XLINK] specification.

4.2.5 The @xml:base attribute on <schemaRef> elements (optional)

The @xml:base attribute [XML Base] MAY appear on <schemaRef> elements, participating in the resolution of relative URIs specified in their @xlink:href attributes.

4.3 The <linkbaseRef> element in XBRL instances

The [XLINK] specification provides for a standard way of finding Linkbases (see http://www.w3.org/TR/xlink/#xlg). The <linkbaseRef> element conforms to this standard by using a specific @xlink:arcrole content value (see Section 4.3.3).

One or more <linkbaseRef> elements MAY occur as children of the <xbrl> element (They MAY also occur in Taxonomy Schemas. See Section 5.1.2 for details). If <linkbaseRef> elements occur as children of <xbrl> elements, they MUST follow the <schemaRef> elements and precede all other elements, in document order.

In an XBRL Instance, the <linkbaseRef> element identifies a Linkbase that becomes part of the DTS supporting that XBRL instance.

The XML Schema constraints applying to the <linkbaseRef> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="linkbaseRef" substitutionGroup="xl:simple">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the linkbaseRef element - used to link to XBRL taxonomy extended links from taxonomy schema documents and from XBRL instances.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:simpleType">
<attribute ref="xlink:arcrole" use="required">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This attribute must have the value: http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink/properties/linkbase
</documentation>
</annotation>
</attribute>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

4.3.1 The @xlink:type attribute on <linkbaseRef> elements

The @xlink:type attribute MUST occur and MUST have the fixed content "simple".

4.3.2 The @xlink:href attribute on <linkbaseRef> elements

A <linkbaseRef> element MUST have an @xlink:href attribute. The @xlink:href attribute MUST be a URI. The URI MUST point to a Linkbase (as defined in Section 3.5.2) that contains the appropriate Extended Links, as determined by the value of the @xlink:role attribute. If the URI reference is relative, its absolute version MUST be determined as specified in [XML Base] before use. For details on the allowable forms of XPointer [XPOINTER] syntax in the URI see Section 3.5.4.

4.3.3 The @xlink:arcrole attribute on <linkbaseRef> elements

The @xlink:arcrole attribute on the <linkbaseRef> element MUST have the [XLINK]- specified fixed content:

http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink/properties/linkbase

4.3.4 The @xlink:role attribute on <linkbaseRef> elements (optional)

The optional @xlink:role attribute constrains the kinds of Extended Links that are permitted within the Linkbase identified by the <linkbaseRef> element. Table 2 sets out the standard @xlink:role attribute values for the @xlink:role attribute when it occurs on the <linkbaseRef> element. Table 2 also documents which kinds of extended links:

  • MUST be contained by the Linkbase connected to by a <linkbaseRef> element with each of the standard @xlink:role attribute values; and
  • MUST NOT be contained by the Linkbase connected to by a <linkbaseRef> element with each of the standard @xlink:role attribute values.

If a <linkbaseRef> element connects to a Linkbase containing an Extended Link that has not been defined in this specification, then a non-standard value of the @xlink:role attribute MAY be used or the @xlink:role attribute MAY be omitted.

Table 2: Roles in the linkbaseRef element
Values of the <linkbaseRef> @xlink:role attribute Element pointed to by @xlink:href
(unspecified) MAY contain any Extended Link elements
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/calculationLinkbaseRef MUST contain only <calculationLink> elements
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/definitionLinkbaseRef MUST contain only <definitionLink> elements
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/labelLinkbaseRef MUST contain only <labelLink> elements
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationLinkbaseRef MUST contain only <presentationLink> elements
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/referenceLinkbaseRef MUST contain only <referenceLink> elements

4.3.5 The @xml:base attribute on <linkbaseRef> elements (optional)

The @xml:base attribute [XML Base] MAY appear on <linkbaseRef> elements, participating in the resolution of relative URIs specified in their @xlink:href attributes.

4.4 The <roleRef> element in XBRL instances (optional)

One or more <roleRef> elements (defined in Section 3.5.2.4) MAY be used in XBRL Instances. If used, they MUST appear immediately after the <linkbaseRef> elements in the XBRL instance, in document order. <roleRef> elements are used in XBRL instances to reference the definitions of any custom @xlink:role attribute values used in footnote links in the XBRL instance.

4.5 The <arcroleRef> element in XBRL instances (optional)

One or more <arcroleRef> elements (defined in Section 3.5.2.5) MAY be used in XBRL Instances. If used, they MUST appear immediately after the <roleRef> elements in the XBRL instance, in document order. <arcroleRef> elements are used in XBRL instances to reference the definitions of any custom @xlink:arcrole attribute values used in footnote links in the XBRL instance.

4.6 Items

As discussed in Section 3 above, an Item represents a single fact or business measurement. In the XML Schema for XBRL instances, item is defined as an Abstract Element. This means that it will never appear in its own right in an XBRL Instance. Therefore, all elements representing single facts or business measurements defined in an XBRL taxonomy document and reported in an XBRL instance MUST be either (a) members of the substitution group item; or, (b) members of a substitution group originally based on item. XBRL taxonomies include Taxonomy Schemas that contain such element definitions. <item> elements might need to be referenced from elsewhere (such as from a footnote) therefore taxonomy authors SHOULD NOT prohibit the @id attribute inherited from the base XBRL item type.

<item> elements MUST NOT be descendants of other <item> elements. Structural relationships necessary in an XBRL Instance MUST be captured only using Tuples (see Section 4.9). The intellectual structure - the relationship of financial Concepts to each other in a variety of senses - is captured by the link structure of taxonomy Linkbases rather than by nesting of facts in XBRL instances.

The XML Schema definition of the item element and the data types for elements in the item substitution group are given below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<attributeGroup name="factAttrs">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Attributes for all items and tuples.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="optional"/>
<anyAttribute namespace="##other" processContents="lax"/>
</attributeGroup>
<attributeGroup name="tupleAttrs">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Group of attributes for tuples.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:factAttrs"/>
</attributeGroup>
<attributeGroup name="itemAttrs">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Attributes for all items.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:factAttrs"/>
<attribute name="contextRef" type="IDREF" use="required"/>
</attributeGroup>
<attributeGroup name="essentialNumericItemAttrs">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Attributes for all numeric items (fractional and non-fractional).
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:itemAttrs"/>
<attribute name="unitRef" type="IDREF" use="required"/>
</attributeGroup>
<attributeGroup name="numericItemAttrs">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Group of attributes for non-fractional numeric items
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:essentialNumericItemAttrs"/>
<attribute name="precision" type="xbrli:precisionType" use="optional"/>
<attribute name="decimals" type="xbrli:decimalsType" use="optional"/>
</attributeGroup>
<attributeGroup name="nonNumericItemAttrs">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Group of attributes for non-numeric items
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:itemAttrs"/>
</attributeGroup>
<annotation>
<documentation>
XBRL domain numeric item types - for use on concept element definitions The following 4 numeric types are all types that have been identified as having particular relevance to the domain space addressed by XBRL and are hence included in addition to the built-in types from XML Schema.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType name="monetaryItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="xbrli:monetary">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="sharesItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="xbrli:shares">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="pureItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="xbrli:pure">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<element name="numerator" type="decimal"/>
<element name="denominator" type="xbrli:nonZeroDecimal"/>
<complexType name="fractionItemType" final="extension">
<sequence>
<element ref="xbrli:numerator"/>
<element ref="xbrli:denominator"/>
</sequence>
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:essentialNumericItemAttrs"/>
</complexType>
<complexType name="stringItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="string">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<!-- booleanItemType, hexBinaryItemType, base64BinaryItemType, anyURIItemType, , QNameItemType, durationItemType, dateTimeItemType, timeItemType, dateItemType, gYearMonthItemType, gYearItemType, gMonthDayItemType, gDayItemType, gMonthItemType, normalizedStringItemType, tokenItemType, languageItemType, NameItemType, ... -->
<element name="item" type="anyType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract item element used as head of item substitution group
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>

Example 9: A numeric fact with three significant digits

<ci:capitalLeases contextRef="c1" unitRef="u1" precision="3">727432</ci:capitalLeases>

Meaning: The value of Capital Leases in the numeric context labelled c1 is 727000 accurate to 3 significant figures. Note that it will be necessary to consult the context (defined below) in order to determine other details concerning the value such as Entity, Period, etc. and it will be necessary to consult the referenced <unit> element to determine the relevant Unit information.

Example 10: A non-numeric item

<ci:concentrationsNote contextRef="c1"> Concentration of credit risk with regard to short term investments is not considered to be significant due to the Company's cash management policies. These policies restrict investments to low risk, highly liquid securities (that is, commercial paper, money market instruments, etc.), outline issuer credit requirements, and limit the amount that may be invested in any one issuer. </ci:concentrationsNote>

Meaning: The text of the Concentrations note in the context labelled c1.

The content of the abstract <item> element is derived from anyType. Each member of the substitution group of <item> must have a defined XBRL item type. This allows each substitution for <item> in the instance to validate against its own data type. There is one defined XBRL item type derived from each of the appropriate built-in types of XML Schema, along with the fractionItemType type. The complete list is in Section 5.1.1.3. An item MUST NOT have complex content unless its item type is derived by restriction from fractionItemType.

The @contextRef attribute is an IDREF to the <context> element (see Section 4.7) that holds additional relevant information about the fact represented. An item MUST contain a @contextRef attribute that references a <context> element in the same XBRL instance. Note that an XBRL Instance is an occurrence of the <xbrl> element, not the entire document. Items whose content is derived from an XML Schema built-in numeric type (decimal, float or double or a built-in type derived from one of them) or fractionItemType by restriction MUST use the @contextRef attribute and the @unitRef attribute; all others MUST use the @contextRef attribute.

The @unitRef attribute is an IDREF to the <unit> element (see Section 4.8) that holds information about Units in which numeric facts have been measured. The @unitRef attribute MUST NOT occur in Non-Numeric Items. The @unitRef attribute MUST occur in Numeric Items, referencing a <unit> element in the same XBRL instance.

Two optional attributes, @precision and @decimals, are available on Numeric Items (except those with type fractionItemType) to enable the XBRL instance creator to make statements about the accuracy of the facts represented. They are discussed in the following sections.

4.6.1 The @contextRef attribute

All items MUST have a context. All Tuples MUST NOT have a context. Items identify their contexts using the @contextRef attribute. The @contextRef attribute is used to identify the <context> element that is associated with the item on which the @contextRef attribute occurs.

The value of the @contextRef attribute MUST be equal to the value of an @id attribute on a <context> element in the XBRL Instance that contains the item on which the @contextRef attribute occurs.

4.6.2 The @unitRef attribute

All Numeric Items MUST have a statement of the Units of measurement. All Tuples and all Non-Numeric Items MUST NOT have a statement of the units of measurement. Numeric items identify their units using the @unitRef attribute. The @unitRef attribute is used to identify the <unit> element that is associated with the item on which the @unitRef attribute occurs.

The value of the @unitRef attribute MUST be equal to the value of an @id attribute on a <unit> element in the XBRL Instance that contains the Numeric Item on which the @unitRef attribute occurs.

4.6.3 Usage of @precision and @decimals attributes

A Numeric Item MUST have either a @precision attribute or a @decimals attribute unless it is of the fractionItemType or of a type that is derived by restriction from fractionItemType or has a nil value, in which case, it MUST NOT have either a @precision attribute or a @decimals attribute.

A Numeric Item MUST NOT have both a @precision attribute and a @decimals attribute.

A Non-Numeric Item MUST NOT have either a @precision or a @decimals attribute.

When determining whether two Numeric Items are V-Equal (a predicate that is used in the definition of various other equality type predicates) it is necessary to take into consideration the values of @precision (or the precision inferred from the value of the @decimals attribute) for the two numeric items. The formal definition of V-Equal for two numeric items is given in Section 4.10.

4.6.4 The @precision attribute (optional)

The @precision attribute MUST be a non-negative integer or the string "INF" that conveys the arithmetic precision of a measurement, and, therefore, the utility of that measurement to further calculations. Different software packages may claim different levels of accuracy for the numbers they produce. The @precision attribute allows any producer to state the precision of the output in the same way. If a numeric fact has a @precision attribute that has the value "n" then it is correct to "n" significant figures (see Section 4.6.1 for the normative definition of 'correct to "n" significant figures'). An application SHOULD ignore (i.e. replace with zeroes) any digits after the first "n" decimal digits, counting from the left, starting at the first non-zero digit in the lexical representation of any number for which the value of precision is specified or inferred to be n.

The meaning of precision="INF" is that the lexical representation of the number is the exact value of the fact being represented.

NOTE: The definitions in this specification mean that @precision and by inference, @decimals indicate the range in which the actual value of the fact that gave rise to its expressed value in the XBRL Instance lies.

Example 11: Precision and lexical representation

Example Meaning
precision="9"

Precision of nine digits. The first 9 digits, counting from the left, starting at the first non-zero digit in the lexical representation of the value of the numeric fact are known to be trustworthy for the purposes of computations to be performed using that numeric fact.

 
Precision Example of lexical representation in the XBRL instance Read as (after omitting or zeroing any spurious digits) Known to be GE Known to be LT

INF

476.334

476.334

476.334

476.33400000000…1

3

205

205e0

204.5

205.5

4

2002000

2002e3

2001500

2002500

4

-2002000

-2002e3

-2002500

2001500

2

2012

20e2

1950

2050

2

2000

20e2

1950

2050

1

99

9e1

85

95

0

1234

1234

unknown

unknown

The simple type precisionType has been provided to define the value space for the value of the @precision attribute. Its definition is as follows:

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<simpleType name="precisionType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This type is used to specify the value of the precision attribute on numeric items. It consists of the union of nonNegativeInteger and "INF" (used to signify infinite precision or "exact value").
</documentation>
</annotation>
<union memberTypes="nonNegativeInteger">
<simpleType>
<restriction base="string">
<enumeration value="INF"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</union>
</simpleType>
</schema>

4.6.5 The @decimals attribute (optional)

The @decimals attribute MUST be an integer or the value "INF" that specifies the number of decimal places to which the value of the fact represented may be considered accurate, possibly as a result of rounding or truncation. If a numeric fact has a @decimals attribute with the value "n" then it is known to be correct to "n" decimal places. (See Section 4.6.7.2 for the normative definition of 'correct to "n" decimal places').

The meaning of decimals="INF" is that the lexical representation of the number is the exact value of the fact being represented.

Example 12: Decimals and lexical representation

Example Meaning
decimals="2"

The value of the numeric fact is known to be correct to 2 decimal places.

decimals="-2"

The value of the numeric fact is known to be correct to -2 decimal places, i.e. all digits to the left of the hundreds digit are accurate.

 
Decimals Example of lexical representation in the XBRL instance Read as (after omitting or zeroing any spurious digits) Known to be GE Known to be LT

INF

436.749

436.749

436.749

436.74900000…1

2

10.00

10.00

9.995

10.005

2

10

10.00

9.995

10.005

2

10.000

10.00

9.995

10.005

2

10.009

10.00

9.995

10.005

0

10

10.

9.5

10.5

-1

10

10.

5

15

-1

11

10.

5

15

3

205

205.000

204.9995

205.0005

4

2002000

2002000.0000

2001999.99995

2002000.00005

-2

-205

-200.

-250

-150

-2

205

200.

150

250

-2

2002000

2002000.

2001950

2002050

-3

2002000

2002000.

2001500

2002500

-4

2002000

2000000.

1995000

2005000

-3

777000

777000

776500

777500

The simple type decimalsType defines the legal values for the @decimals attribute. Its XML Schema definition is as follows:

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<simpleType name="decimalsType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This type is used to specify the value of the decimals attribute on numeric items. It consists of the union of integer and "INF" (used to signify that a number is expressed to an infinite number of decimal places or "exact value").
</documentation>
</annotation>
<union memberTypes="integer">
<simpleType>
<restriction base="string">
<enumeration value="INF"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</union>
</simpleType>
</schema>

4.6.6 Inferring decimals

The following rules enable XBRL Instance consumers to infer a value for the @decimalsattribute of a Numeric Item when none is supplied.

For a Numeric Item of type fractionItemType or type derived by restriction from fractionItemType, a consuming application MUST infer the precision to be equal to 'INF' if it is to be used in calculations.

If, on a Numeric Item, the @precision attribute is present rather than the @decimals attribute, then a consuming application MUST infer the decimals of that numeric fact if it is to be used in calculations or searches for duplicates in XBRL Instances.

If the value of the @precision attribute of a Numeric Item is equal to 0 , nothing is known about the precision of the number, nothing can be inferred about decimals, and thus any consuming V-Equals comparison must be false, and any calculation link summation involving the item must be inconsistent.

If the value of the @precision attribute is INF then the inferred decimals value is INF.

If the value of the @precision attribute is not INF and greater than 0 then the decimals value is

  • For an item of numeric value 0, the inferred decimals is deemed to be INF, treating data values of zero as a singularity of infinite decimals accuracy (regardless of non-zero value of @precision attribute or item syntax, e.g., 0, or 000, or .00).
  • Otherwise the inferred decimals is given by the following expression: precision - int(floor(log10(abs(number(item))))) - 1, where precision is the value of the @precision attribute, int( ) a function returning an integer of its argument, floor( ) a function returning the largest integer less than or equal to its argument, log10( ) a function returning the logarithm base 10 of its argument, abs( ) a function returning the absolute value of its argument, number( ) a function providing a numeric conversion if its argument is not internally numeric (as may be needed for the math computations), and item is the item's value (PSVI typed numeric node value if available, or otherwise inner text of numeric item node).

Example 13: Lexical representation, precision and decimals

Lexical Representation Value of the decimals attribute Inferred value of the @precision attribute

123

2

3+2=5

123.4567

2

3+2=5

123e5

-3

3+5+(-3)=5

123.45e5

-3

3+5+(-3)=5

0.1e-2

5

0+(-2)+5=3

0.001E-2

5

(-2)+(-2)+5=1

0.001e-3 (this is a pathological case)

4

(-2)+(-3)+4=-1 which is less than 0 and hence 0

4.6.7 Definitions pertaining to accuracy

The following definitions are provided for clarity regarding accuracy-related features of this specification, i.e. @precision and @decimals attributes.

4.6.7.1 "Correct to n Significant Figures", "Rounding" and "Truncation"

If the lexical representation of the value of a number is said to be correct to n significant figures it means that the first "n" decimal digits, counting from the left, starting at the first non-zero digit in the lexical representation of the number are known to be accurate for the purposes of computations to be performed using that number. (Note: in the following it is assumed that all zeros to the left of the decimal point and to the left of the first non-zero digit in the decimal representation have been removed first).

More precisely: in the decimal representation of a number, a significant figure is any one of the digits 1, 2, 3...9 that specify the magnitude of a number. Zero (0) is a significant figure except when it appears to the left of all non-zero digits or is used solely to fill the places of unknown or discarded digits (after truncation or rounding - see later). Thus, in the number "0.00263", there are three significant figures: 2, 6, and 3. The zeroes are not significant. In the number "3809" all four of the digits are significant. In the number "46300" the digits 4, 6, and 3 are known to be significant but it is not possible to conclude anything concerning the two zeroes as they are written. This ambiguity can be removed by writing the number in terms of powers of ten. If there are three significant figures the representation becomes 4.63 × 104; if there are four significant figures it becomes 4.630 × 104, etc.

It is often necessary to round significant figures following a calculation. This is known as rounding [IEEE] [IEEE 4.3.1 Rounding-direction attributes to nearest, roundTiesToEven]. To round a number to n significant figures, discard all digits to the right of the nth place. This step is known as truncation. Then, if the original number is equally near two truncated numbers, the one with an even nth digit is chosen. For example:

Example 14: Rounding

Original Rounded to n significant figures

n=2

n=3

3.5643

3.6

3.56

3.5673

3.6

3.57

0.49787

0.50

0.498

3.9999

4.0

4.00

9.999991

10

10.0

22.55

23

22.6†

22.65

23

22.6†

0.0019

0.0019

0.00190

0.00002

0.000020

0.0000200

† example of roundTiesToEven

The same procedure MAY be followed for any value of n, and we then say that a particular lexical representation of the value of a number is correct to n significant figures. It is possible that this technique has been used to create the lexical representation of a fact in an XBRL Instance with a @precision attribute of n.

4.6.7.2 "Correct to n Decimal Places"

If the representation of a number is correct to n decimal places then

the number is rounded according to [IEEE] [IEEE 4.3.1 Rounding-direction attributes to nearest, roundTiesToEven].

Rounding, as described earlier, might have been used to make a number correct to exactly n decimal places for inclusion in an XBRL Instance with a @decimals attribute of n. The following table shows the representations of the number 123456.789012 correct to various numbers of decimal places, and examples of roundTiesToEven:

Example 15: Correct to n decimal places

123456.789012 correct to n decimal places

n=-3

n=-2

n=0

n=3

n=6

123000

123500

123457

123456.789

123456.789012

123450 correct to n decimal places

123000

123400†

123450

123450.000

123450.000000

123550 correct to n decimal places

124000

123600†

123550

123550.000

123550.000000

†- example of roundTiesToEven

4.7 The <context> element

The <context> element contains information about the Entity being described, the reporting Period and the reporting scenario, all of which are necessary for understanding a business fact captured as an XBRL item.

The <context> element MUST conform to the following XML Schema constraints:

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="context">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Used for an island of context to which facts can be related.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<sequence>
<element name="entity" type="xbrli:contextEntityType"/>
<element name="period" type="xbrli:contextPeriodType"/>
<element name="scenario" type="xbrli:contextScenarioType" minOccurs="0"/>
</sequence>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="required"/>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

In the examples provided in the following sub-sections, the xsi:schemaLocation attribute does not contain URIs to resolve the ISO4217 and NASDAQ namespaces. In the case of NASDAQ the examples assume that the applications that produced and will consume this instance will be able to resolve this namespace reference without the help of the xsi:schemaLocation. The ISO4217 namespace does not refer to an XML Schema that can be used for validation of the XBRL Instances shown in the examples. The ISO4217 and NASDAQ URIs do not reference actual resources of the ISO or NASDAQ.

4.7.1 The @id attribute

Every <context> element MUST include the @id attribute. The content of the @id attribute MUST conform to the [XML] rules for attributes with the ID type (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml#NT-TokenizedType). The @id attribute identifies the context (see Section 4.7) so that it may be referenced by item elements.

Example 16: IDs

Example

id="C2424"

Counterexample

id="42"

Content of the ID type must not begin with a number.

4.7.2 The <period> element

The Period element contains the instant or interval of time for reference by an <item> element. The sub-elements of period are used to construct one of the allowed choices for representing date intervals.

Elements Meaning
startDate, endDate

A period beginning and ending as specified.

instant

A point in time.

forever

An element to represent 'forever'.

Each of the Period sub-elements uses a standard XML Schema representation of a date.

The XML Schema constraints on the <period> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<simpleType name="dateUnion">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The union of the date and dateTime simple types.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<union memberTypes="date dateTime"/>
</simpleType>
<complexType name="contextPeriodType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The type for the period element, used to describe the reporting date info.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<choice>
<sequence>
<element name="startDate" type="xbrli:dateUnion"/>
<element name="endDate" type="xbrli:dateUnion"/>
</sequence>
<element name="instant" type="xbrli:dateUnion"/>
<element name="forever">
<complexType/>
</element>
</choice>
</complexType>
</schema>

Sub-element XML Schema data type
instant date or dateTime
forever empty
startDate date or dateTime
endDate date or dateTime

While the content of the instant, startDate and endDate elements are defined to use the data representation defined by ISO 8601 (as restricted by [XML Schema Datatypes]), XBRL adds further restrictions and constraints.

For an item element with periodType="instant" (See Section 5.1.1.1), the <period>  MUST contain an instant element.

For an item element with periodType="duration", the Period MUST contain forever or a valid sequence of startDate and endDate.

A date, with no time part, in the content of an startDate element is defined to be equivalent to specifying a dateTime of the same date, and T00:00:00 (midnight at the start of the day).

A date, with no time part, in the endDate or instant element is defined to be equivalent to specifying a dateTime of the same date plus P1D and with a time part of T00:00:00. This represents midnight at the end of the day. The reason for defining it thus, i.e. as midnight at the start of the next day, is that [XML Schema Datatypes] mandates this representation by prohibiting the value of 24 in the "hours" part of a time specification, which is ISO 8601 syntax.

If supplied, the endDate MUST specify or imply a point in time that is later than the specified or implied point in time of the corresponding startDate.

4.7.3 The <entity> element

The <entity> element documents the Entity (business, government department, individual, etc.) that fact describes. The <entity> element is required content of the <context> element. The <entity> element MUST contain an <identifier> element and MAY contain a <segment> element.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<complexType name="contextEntityType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The type for the entity element, used to describe the reporting entity. Note that the scheme attribute is required and cannot be empty.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<sequence>
<element name="identifier">
<complexType>
<simpleContent>
<extension base="token">
<attribute name="scheme" use="required">
<simpleType>
<restriction base="anyURI">
<minLength value="1"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element ref="xbrli:segment" minOccurs="0"/>
</sequence>
</complexType>
</schema>

4.7.3.1 <identifier>

An <identifier> element specifies a @scheme for identifying business entities. The required @scheme attribute contains the namespace URI of the identification @scheme, providing a framework for referencing naming authorities. The element content MUST be a token that is a valid identifier within the namespace referenced by the @scheme attribute. XBRL International is not a naming authority for business entities. XBRL makes no assumption about the ability of an application to resolve an identifier that may appear as element content in any particular scheme.

Example 17: Entity identifiers

Example Meaning
<identifier scheme="http://www.nasdaq.com">SAMP</identifier>

The company with NASDAQ ticker symbol SAMP.

<identifier scheme="http://www.dnb.com">121064880</identifier>

The company or subsidiary with D-U-N-S number 121064880.

<identifier scheme="http://www.cusip.org">41009876AB</identifier>

The Entity with CUSIP number 41009876AB (e.g. a mutual fund).

<identifier scheme="http://www.ietf.org/URI">www.w3c.org</identifier>

The non-profit organisation owning the URI www.w3c.org.

4.7.3.2 The <segment> element (optional)

The <segment> element is an optional container for additional mark-up that the preparer of an XBRL Instance SHOULD use to identify the business segment more completely in cases where the Entity identifier is insufficient. In general, the content of a <segment> will be specific to the purpose of the XBRL instance. Elements contained by the <segment> element MUST NOT be defined in the http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance namespace. Also, they MUST NOT be in the substitution group for elements defined in the http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance namespace. The <segment> element MUST NOT be empty.

The XML Schema restrictions on the <segment> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="segment">
<complexType>
<sequence>
<any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

Example 18: Using the segment element

<xbrl
  xmlns:ci
="http://www.xbrl.org/us/gaap/ci/2003/usfr-ci-2003"

  xmlns:xsi
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"

  xmlns:s
="http://mycompany.com/xbrl/taxonomy"

  xmlns:xbrli
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance"

  xmlns:xlink
="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"

  xmlns:my
="http://www.someCompany.com/segment"

  xmlns:xl
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink"

  xmlns
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.someCompany.com/segment http://www.someCompany.com/segment/segment-schema.xsd">
<!-- ... at least one link:schemaRef element goes here ... -->
<!-- ... elements from taxonomies containing fact values go here ... -->
<context id="c1">
<entity>
<!--required content -->
<identifier scheme="http://www.dnb.com">121064880</identifier>
<!-- optional content -->
<segment>
<my:stateProvince>MI</my:stateProvince>
</segment>
</entity>
<period>
<instant>2002-12-01</instant>
</period>
</context>
</xbrl>
<!-- Company specific segment sub-element -->
<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"

  xmlns:my
="http://www.someCompany.com/segment"
targetNamespace="http://www.someCompany.com/segment" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<simpleType name="stateProvinceType">
<restriction base="token">
<enumeration value="MI"/>
<enumeration value="ON"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
<element name="stateProvince" type="my:stateProvinceType"/>
</schema>

Meaning: The preparer has used a <segment> to indicate that the business facts relate to operations in the state of Michigan. The company's own XML Schema document defines the stateProvince element as including just Michigan and Ontario.

Creators of taxonomies should anticipate that XBRL Instance creators will define elements to insert in the segment element to represent one or more dimensions of distinction such as:

  • Organisational structure, such as a the corporate headquarters and individual subsidiaries of an Entity;
  • Regional decomposition, such as operations in Asia, Europe, and North America;
  • Functional distinctions, such as results from continuing and discontinued operations;
  • Product distinctions, such as operations relating to fishing, forestry and farming;
  • Operational distinctions such as recurring vs. non-recurring revenues or new subscriptions vs. renewals.

It is up to the preparer of the document to provide the proper namespace support and xsi:schemaLocation hints necessary to ensure that an XML Schema validation process properly validates the <segment> element.

4.7.4 The <scenario> element (optional)

Business facts can be reported as actual, budgeted, restated, pro forma, etc. For internal reporting purposes, there can be an even greater variety of additional metadata that preparers want to associate with items. The optional <scenario> element allows additional valid mark-up (see note above regarding segment) to be included for this purpose.

Elements contained by the <scenario> element MUST NOT be defined in the http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance namespace. Also, they MUST NOT be in the substitution group for elements defined in the http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance namespace. The <scenario> element MUST NOT be empty.

The XML Schema restrictions on the <scenario> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<complexType name="contextScenarioType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Used for the scenario under which fact have been reported.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<sequence>
<any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
</complexType>
</schema>

Example 19: Use of the scenario element

<xbrl
  xmlns:fid
="http://www.someInsuranceCo.com/scenarios"

  xmlns:other
="http://www.example.com"

  xmlns:ci
="http://www.xbrl.org/us/gaap/ci/2003/usfr-ci-2003"

  xmlns:xsi
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"

  xmlns:s
="http://mycompany.com/xbrl/taxonomy"

  xmlns:xbrli
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance"

  xmlns:xlink
="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"

  xmlns:xl
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink"

  xmlns
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.someInsuranceCo.com/scenarios http://www.someInsuranceCo.com/scenarios/scenarios-schema.xsd">
<!-- ... at least one link:schemaRef element goes here ... -->
<!-- ... elements from taxonomies containing fact values go here ... -->
<context id="c1">
<entity>
<identifier scheme="http://www.example.com">someInsuranceCo</identifier>
</entity>
<scenario>
<other:bestEstimate/>
<fid:dwSlice>
<fid:residence>MA</fid:residence>
<fid:nonSmoker>true</fid:nonSmoker>
<fid:minAge>34</fid:minAge>
<fid:maxAge>49</fid:maxAge>
</fid:dwSlice>
</scenario>
</context>
</xbrl>

Meaning: The preparer has used a <scenario> to indicate that the reported values relate to a "best estimate" scenario for non-smokers residing in Massachusetts of the specified age group.

It is up to the preparer of the instance to provide the proper namespace support and xsi:schemaLocation hints necessary to ensure that the <scenario> element is properly validated by an XML Schema validation process.

The scenario and segment sub-elements have exactly the same structure, but are used for two different purposes. Segment is used to specify some component of the business Entity. Scenario is used to document the circumstances surrounding the measurement of a set of facts, and like the <segment> element, its content will be application specific.

Creators of business reporting taxonomies should anticipate that XBRL Instance creators will define elements to insert in the <scenario> element to represent dimensions of distinction such as:

  • Assuming certain valuations of assets or future revenue streams;
  • Actual, adjusted, estimated, forecasted, or reported as of a certain date;
  • Assuming a particular foreign currency exchange rate.

4.8 The <unit> element

The <unit> element specifies the Units in which a Numeric Item has been measured. The content of the <unit> element MUST be either a simple unit of measure expressed with a single <measure> element or a ratio of products of units of measure, with the ratio represented by the <divide> element and the numerator and denominator products both represented by a sequence of <measure> elements.

Some examples of simple Units of measure are EUR (Euros), meters, kilograms and FTE (Full Time Equivalents). Some examples of complex units of measures are Earnings per Share and Square Feet.

The XML Schema restrictions on the <unit> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<annotation>
<documentation>
XML Schema components contributing to the unit element
</documentation>
</annotation>
<element name="measure" type="QName"/>
<complexType name="measuresType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
A collection of sibling measure elements
</documentation>
</annotation>
<sequence>
<element ref="xbrli:measure" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
</complexType>
<element name="divide">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Element used to represent division in units
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<sequence>
<element name="unitNumerator" type="xbrli:measuresType"/>
<element name="unitDenominator" type="xbrli:measuresType"/>
</sequence>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="unit">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Element used to represent units information about numeric items
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<choice>
<element ref="xbrli:measure" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<element ref="xbrli:divide"/>
</choice>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="required"/>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

4.8.1 The @id attribute

Every <unit> element MUST include an @id attribute. The value of the @id attribute MUST conform to the [XML] rules for attributes with the ID type (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml#NT-TokenizedType). The @id attribute identifies the Unit (see Section 4.8) so that it may be referenced by <item> elements.

4.8.2 The <measure> element

The <measure> element is of type xsd:QName.

Some facts have restrictions on the content of the <unit> element and the value of the <measure> element that is a consequence of the type of Concept they represent. These restrictions are set out in the following table.

Table 3: Unit restrictions based on item types.
Item type implies <unit>  MUST contain

monetaryItemType or derived from monetaryItemType

A single xbrli:measure element whose xsd:QName content is constrained as follows:

The (local part) of the xsd:QName MUST be an ISO 4217 currency designation [ISO] that was valid during the time designated by the Period element of the item's context. The (namespace name) of the xsd:QName MUST be http://www.xbrl.org/2003/iso4217

sharesItemType or derived from sharesItemType

A single xbrli:measure element whose xsd:QName content is constrained as follows:

The (local part) of the xsd:QName MUST be "shares" and the (namespace name) of the xsd:QName MUST be http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance

To represent rates, percentages or ratios where the numerator and the denominator would be the same Units, the fact MUST have a @unitRef attribute identifying a unit element with a single <measure> element as its only child. The local part of the <measure>  MUST be "pure" and the namespace prefix MUST resolve to the namespace: "http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance". Rates, percentages and ratios MUST be reported using decimal or scientific notation rather than in percentages where the value has been multiplied by 100.

A complex Unit of measure can be expressed by showing the mathematical relationships between other units of measure using a sequence of sibling <measure> elements (which imply a multiplication of those <measure> elements) and a single <divide> element (which implies division of a numerator by a denominator).

A <measure> element with a namespace prefix that resolves to the "http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" namespace MUST have a local part of either "pure" or "shares".

4.8.3 The <divide> element

The <divide> element MUST contain a <unitNumerator> element followed by a <unitDenominator> element.

4.8.4 The <unitNumerator> and <unitDenominator> elements

The <unitNumerator> element and the <unitDenominator> element must both contain one or more <measure> elements.

Units MUST be expressed in their simplest possible form. The <divide> element MUST not contain any <measure> elements in its <unitNumerator> that are S-Equal to <measure> elements in its <unitDenominator> .

Some examples of the <unit> element are shown in the following example.

Example 20: Use of the unit element

Example Meaning
<unit id="u1">
<measure
  xmlns:ISO4217
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/iso4217"
>ISO4217:GBP</measure>
</unit>

Currency, UK Pounds.

<unit id="u2">
<measure
  xmlns:ISO4217
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/iso4217"
>ISO4217:gbp</measure>
</unit>

Incorrect lower case currency designator.

<unit id="u1">
<measure>xbrli:pure</measure>
</unit>

A pure number, such as % revenue change.

<unit id="u3">
<measure>myuom:feet</measure>
<measure>myuom:feet</measure>
</unit>

Square feet - feet multiplied by feet.

<unit id="u4">
<measure>xbrli:shares</measure>
</unit>

A number of shares.

<unit id="u5">
<measure>myuom:FTE</measure>
</unit>

A head count (number of Full Time Equivalents).

<unit id="u6">
<divide>
<unitNumerator>
<measure>ISO4217:EUR</measure>
</unitNumerator>
<unitDenominator>
<measure>xbrli:shares</measure>
</unitDenominator>
</divide>
</unit>

Earnings per share (EPS) measured in Euros per share.

<unit id="u6">
<divide>
<unitNumerator>
<measure>ISO4217:EUR</measure>
</unitNumerator>
<unitDenominator>
<measure>ISO4217:EUR</measure>
</unitDenominator>
</divide>
</unit>

Illegal because the same measure occurs in both the numerator and the denominator of the <divide> element.

The "ISO4217" namespace prefix used in these examples must resolve to "http://www.xbrl.org/2003/iso4217".

The "xbrli" namespace prefix used in these examples must resolve to "http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance".

The "myuom" namespace prefix is not defined by the XBRL specification, but it must resolve to a namespace that is in scope for the <measure> element. This namespace may be a URL that identifies a resource that describes the Units of measure that are contained by the namespace. Although there are no XBRL semantics on how to interpret this information, it may provide assistance to creators of XBRL Instances. For example, if the myuom namespace prefix resolves to "http://www.mycomp.com/myuom" then this namespace could be a URL that contains an HTML document that lists the available units of measure.

Some complex Units of measure MAY be expressed as a simple unit of measure. For example, square feet may be expressed as a complex unit of measure showing a multiplication of two basic measures of feet as shown in the following example. It is at the discretion of the XBRL instance creator to use a <unit> element that describes the unit of measure to the appropriate degree.

Example 21: Simple and complex unit of measure comparison

Simple Unit of Measure Complex Unit of Measure
<unit id="u1">
<measure>myuom:sqrft</measure>
</unit>
<unit id="u4">
<measure>myuom:feet</measure>
<measure>myuom:feet</measure>
</unit>

Note: The namespace prefix myuom must resolve to a valid namespace. It should be understood that the measures in this example "sqrft", and "feet" are contained in this namespace.

4.9 Tuples

While most business facts can be independently understood, some facts are dependent on each other for proper understanding, especially if multiple occurrences of that fact are being reported. For example, in reporting the management of a company, each manager's name has to be properly associated with the manager's correct title. Such sets of facts (manager's title/manager's name) are called tuples.

Tuples have complex content and MAY contain both items and other tuples. Like the <item> element, the <tuple> element is abstract. The following rules apply to tuples and consequently to their declarations in Taxonomy Schemas:

  • All Tuples MUST be members of the substitution group that has <tuple> as its head. Therefore, tuples MUST be declared globally, because only global elements can be in a substitution group.
  • Tuple declarations in Taxonomy Schemas MUST NOT include a @periodType or @balance attribute (see Section 5.1.1.1 and Section 5.1.1.2 respectively);
  • Tuples might need to be referenced from elsewhere (such as from a footnote). Therefore, all tuple declarations in Taxonomy Schemas SHOULD (but are not required to) include a declaration of an optional local attribute with name @id of type xsd:ID. Authors of extension taxonomies SHOULD NOT prohibit the @id attribute, if one exists, when restricting tuple datatypes.

    NOTE: If the taxonomy author fails to define or prohibits an @id attribute for a Tuple then that tuple will not be referenceable by shorthand xpointers.

  • Attribute uses [XML Schema Structures] (see specifically http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-1/#section-XML-Representation-of-Attribute-Use-Components) in Tuple declarations MUST NOT reference attributes from any of the following namespaces: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance, http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase, http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink, http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink..
  • Tuples MUST NOT have mixed content, or simple content. Therefore, all tuple definitions in Taxonomy Schemas MUST NOT permit mixed content or simple content.
  • Tuple declarations in Taxonomy Schemas SHOULD NOT specify local attributes, other than the 'id' attribute.
  • Children of a Tuple in an instance MUST be elements that are in a substitution group that has either <item> or <tuple> as its head.
  • Considering the constraint on Tuple content in instances (above), it is inappropriate for taxonomy authors to include non-concept elements in the content models of Tuple declarations. Therefore, in the declaration of any tuple in a Taxonomy Schema, declarations of child elements of that tuple MUST be references to global element declarations that are in a substitution group that has either <item> or <tuple> as its head.

    NOTE: From a schema perspective, this leaves open the possibility of illegal content in the instance via the use of wildcards (<xsd:any>); processors will signal such illegal content because of the preceding instance-level constraint.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="tuple" type="anyType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract tuple element used as head of tuple substitution group
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>

Example 22: Defining a tuple as a member of the substitutionGroup "tuple"

An abbreviated example taxonomy schema:
<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://mycompany.com/xbrl/taxonomy">
<element name="managementName" type="xbrli:tokenItemType" xbrli:periodType="instant" substitutionGroup="xbrli:item"/>
<element name="managementTitle" type="xbrli:tokenItemType" xbrli:periodType="instant" substitutionGroup="xbrli:item"/>
<element name="managementAge" type="xbrli:nonNegativeIntegerItemType" xbrli:periodType="instant" substitutionGroup="xbrli:item"/>
<element name="managementInformation" substitutionGroup="xbrli:tuple">
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="anyType">
<sequence>
<element ref="s:managementName"/>
<element ref="s:managementTitle"/>
<element ref="s:managementAge" minOccurs="0"/>
</sequence>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="optional"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>
An XBRL instance of the taxonomy ( <context> and <unit> elements and <linkbaseRef> elements not shown):
<xbrl
  xmlns
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance"
>
<!-- ... one link:schemaRef element MUST exist here referencing previous taxonomy ... -->
<s:managementInformation>
<s:managementName contextRef="c1">Haywood Chenokitov</s:managementName>
<s:managementTitle contextRef="c1">President</s:managementTitle>
<s:managementAge precision="2" contextRef="n1" unitRef="u1">42</s:managementAge>
</s:managementInformation>
<s:managementInformation>
<s:managementName contextRef="c1">Miriam Minderbender</s:managementName>
<s:managementTitle contextRef="c1">CEO</s:managementTitle>
</s:managementInformation>
<!-- ... Context c1 MUST be defined here... -->
<!-- ... Unit u1 MUST be defined here... -->
</xbrl>

The all, sequence and choice elements MAY appear in Tuples. For example, consider information that is disclosed in tax filings regarding real estate and other properties:

Example 23: Elements describing business properties held and disposed

Label Element Name Balance Substitution Group
Property property

tuple
Property description description

item

Date property acquired dateAcquired

item
Date property disposed of dateDisposedOf

item

Property fair market value fairMarketValue

item

Although the description and date acquired are relevant for any property, the property either has a fair market value or has already been disposed of, but not both.

Example 24: Hierarchy in a tuple

Example: Tuples associate Concepts that cannot be understood independently and repeat within an XBRL Instance. Multiple occurrences of a tuple within an XBRL instance are distinguished by having different content and contexts.

The content models for Tuples can be defined using only XML Schema. Content models for tuples are not defined or modified by any of the XBRL Linkbases.

4.10 Equality predicates relevant to detecting duplicate items and tuples

There are several different senses of "equal" that are relevant to detection of duplicates in XBRL Instances: Identical, Structure equal (S-Equal), Parent equal (P-Equal), Value equal (V-Equal), [XPath 1.0]-equal (X-Equal), Context equal (C-Equal) and Unit equal (U-Equal). These different equality predicates are polymorphic and formally defined in a recursive fashion. They are all symmetric predicates, i.e. the result of X (predicate) Y = the result of Y (predicate) X.

Table 4: Equality predicate definitions.
Argument Types Predicates Definition
node identical Exactly the same XML node.
sequence S-Equal, V-Equal, C-Equal, U-Equal Every node in one sequence is {S-Equal, V-Equal, C-Equal, U-Equal} to the node in the same position in the other sequence.
set identical, S-Equal, V-Equal, C-Equal, U-Equal Set X is {identical, S-Equal, V-Equal, C-Equal, U-Equal} to set Y if:

every node in set X can be paired with a node in set Y to which it is {identical, S-Equal, V-Equal, C-Equal, U-Equal} and the two sets have the same number of members.

NOTE: the definition of a set requires that it have distinct members.

any XML object X-Equal An XML object A is X-Equal to an XML object B if the [XPath 1.0] expression A = B returns the value true (see http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath.html#booleans). In the case of element and attribute values, those whose type are xsd:decimal, xsd:float, or xsd:double, or derived from one of these types MUST be treated as numbers for the purposes of interpretation of http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath.html#booleans. If a value has type xsd:boolean (or a type derived from xsd:boolean), then it MUST be converted to an [XPath 1.0] Boolean with '1' and 'true' being converted to true and '0' and 'false' being converted to false. Values with any other XML Schema type are treated as [XPath 1.0] strings.
text S-Equal The two text strings are X-Equal
attribute S-Equal The two attributes have local names and namespaces that are S-Equal and have values that are X-Equal
Element (except those handled separately in this list) S-Equal Not identical, and their element local names and namespaces are both S-Equal, and the set of their attributes are S-Equal, and the sequence of text and sub-element contents are S-Equal.
<entity> S-Equal <identifier> elements are S-Equal, and <segment> elements are S-Equal (with any missing segment treated as S-Equal to an empty <segment> element).
startDate S-Equal The implied date/time is equal, according to the rules set out in Section 4.7.2
endDate S-Equal The implied date/time is equal, according to the rules set out in Section 4.7.2
instant S-Equal The implied date/time is equal, according to the rules set out in Section 4.7.2
<period> S-Equal One of the following conditions applies: 1. both elements have a child forever element, or 2. their child instant elements are S-Equal, or 3. their child startDate elements are S-Equal and their child endDate elements are S-Equal
<unit> S-Equal The child <divide> or set of <measure> elements are S-Equal.
<divide> S-Equal The <unitNumerator> and <unitDenominator> elements are both S-Equal
<unitNumerator> S-Equal The sets of child <measure> elements are S-Equal
<unitDenominator> S-Equal The sets of child <measure> elements are S-Equal
<measure> S-Equal The namespace prefix in the content of the two <measure> elements resolves to the same namespace and the local names in the content of the two <measure> elements are S-Equal.
<context> S-Equal <period> elements are S-Equal, and <entity> elements are S-Equal, and <scenario> elements are S-Equal.
<item> S-Equal they are C-Equal, and they are U-Equal, and @precision attributes are S-Equal, and @decimals attributes are S-Equal, and the text of their contents is S-Equal after converting any values of Numeric Items to a decimal representation.
<tuple> S-Equal The sets of ( <item> and <tuple> ) children are S-Equal.
<usedOn> S-Equal The namespace prefix in the content of the two <usedOn> elements resolves to the same namespace and the local names in the content of the two <usedOn> elements are S-Equal.
item P-Equal Nodes are children of the identical parent.
<tuple> P-Equal Nodes are children of the identical parent.
item C-Equal their @contextRef attributes identify contexts that are identical or S-Equal
Any pair of Numeric Items U-Equal Numeric Items X and Y are U-Equal if and only if all the following conditions apply:
  1. the set of descendant <unitNumerator> elements of UX is S-Equal to the set of descendant <unitNumerator> elements of UY, and
  2. the set of descendant <unitDenominator> elements of UX is S-Equal to the set of descendant <unitDenominator> elements of UY, and
  3. the set of child <measure> elements of of UX is S-Equal to the set of child <measure> elements of UY,
where UX is the <unit> element referenced by the @unitRef attribute of X and UY is the <unit> element referenced by the @unitRef attribute of Y

NOTE: if UX is identical to UY then the above tests will always return the result true

Any pair of Non-Numeric Items U-Equal true
One Numeric Item and one Non-Numeric Item U-Equal false
Numeric Items not of type fractionItemType or a type derived from fractionItemType by restriction V-Equal A and B are V-Equal if and only if all the following conditions apply:
  1. A and B are C-Equal and U-Equal
  2. the numeric values AN and BN are X-Equal where AN is obtained by rounding the content of A to N significant figures and BN is obtained by rounding the content of B to N significant figures where N is the lower of:
    1. the specified or inferred decimals for A and
    2. the specified or inferred decimals for B
(If either Numeric Item has a @precision attribute value 0 then the v-equality is false.)
Numeric Items of type fractionItemType or a type derived from fractionItemType by restriction V-Equal A and B are V-Equal if and only if all the following conditions apply:
  1. A and B are C-Equal and U-Equal
  2. AN is X-Equal to BN and AD is X-Equal to BD where:
    1. AN is the numerator and AD is the denominator of the normal form (defined below) of A and
    2. BN is the numerator and BD is the denominator of the normal form of B.
For any item F of type fractionItemType or a type derived from fractionItemType by restriction, the normal form has numerator FN and denominator FD such that FN and FD are integers and have no integer common factor and there exists a number H such that multiplying FN by H gives the numerator of F and multiplying FD by H gives the denominator of F.
Numeric Items, one of which is of type fractionItemType or a type derived from fractionItemType by restriction and the other of which is not V-Equal V-Equal is always false for such combinations of Numeric Items
Non-Numeric Item V-Equal A and B are V-Equal if and only if all the following conditions apply
  1. A and B are C-Equal
  2. [XPath 1.0]normalize-space(AC) = normalize-space(BC) where AC is the content of A and BC is the content of B.
item duplicate Item X and item Y are duplicates if and only if all the following conditions apply:
  1. X is not identical to Y, and
  2. the element local name of X is S-Equal to the element local name of Y, and
  3. X and Y are defined in the same namespace, and
  4. X is P-Equal to Y, and
  5. X is C-Equal to Y , and
  6. X is U-Equal to Y.
<tuple> duplicate Tuple X and Tuple Y are duplicates if and only if all the following conditions apply:
  1. X is not identical to Y, and
  2. the element local name of X is S-Equal to the element local name of Y, and
  3. X and Y are defined in the same namespace and
  4. X is P-Equal to Y, and
  5. every node A in the set of child Tuples of X can be paired with one node B in the set of child Tuples of Y such that A and B satisfy all the requirements for being Duplicate Tuples except for being P-Equal, and
  6. X has the same number of child Tuples as Y, and
  7. every node A in the set of child items of X can be paired with one node B in the set of child items of Y such that A is V-Equal to B, and A and B satisfy all the requirements for being Duplicate Items except for being P-Equal, and
  8. X has the same number of child items as Y

The following extended example illustrates positive and negative examples of each of the above predicates.

Example 25: Duplicate items, tuples and contexts

element An XBRL instance containing two contexts that are s-equal and doubly nested tuples. Several of the elements are named in the left column.
  <xbrl xmlns="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance"
       xmlns:s="http://mycompany.com/xbrl/taxonomy"
       xmlns:xbrli="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
   
a analysis <s:analysis>
b customer  <s:customer>
b name    <s:name contextRef="np3">Acme</s:name>
b gross    <s:gross unitRef="u3" contextRef="np3"precision="4">3001</s:gross>
b returns    <s:returns unitRef="u3" contextRef="np3"
                precision="3">100</s:returns>
     <s:net unitRef="u3"contextRef="np3" precision="4">2900</s:net>
   </s:customer>
c customer  <s:customer>
c name    <s:name contextRef="Xnnp3X">Acme</s:name>
c gross    <s:gross unitRef="u3" contextRef="np3"precision="3">3000</s:gross>
     <s:returns unitRef="u3" contextRef="np3"
                precision="3">100</s:returns>
     <s:net unitRef="u3" contextRef="np3" precision="4">2900</s:net>
   </s:customer>
d customer  <s:customer>
     <s:name contextRef="np3">Acme</s:name>
     <s:gross unitRef="u3" contextRef="np3"precision="4">3000</s:gross>
d returns    <s:returns unitRef="u3" contextRef="np3"precision="3">500</s:returns>
     <s:net unitRef="u3"contextRef="np3" precision="4">2500</s:net>
   </s:customer>
   <s:customer>
e customer    <s:name contextRef="np3">Bree</s:name>
f name    <s:name contextRef="Xnnp3X">Bree</s:name>
g name    <s:gross unitRef="u3" contextRef="np3"precision="4">3000</s:gross>
     <s:returns unitRef="u3" contextRef="np3"
                precision="3">200</s:returns>
     <s:net unitRef="u3"contextRef="np3" precision="4">2800</s:net>
   </s:customer>
   <s:totalGross unitRef="u3" contextRef="np3"
h totalGross               precision="3">12000</s:totalGross>
  </s:analysis>
   
   
  <!-- One Redundant Context Xnnp3X = period,2003 -->
  <context id="np3">
np3   <entity>
     <identifier scheme="http://www.nasdaq.com">SAMP</identifier>
    </entity>
  <period>
   <startDate>2003-01-01</startDate>
      <endDate>2003-12-31</endDate>
    </period>
  </context>
  <unit id="u3"><measure>ISO4217:USD</measure></unit>
u3 <context id="Xnnp3X">
Xnnp3X  <entity>
     <identifier scheme="http://www.nasdaq.com">SAMP</identifier>
   </entity>
    <period>
     <startDate>2003-01-01</startDate>
     <endDate>2003-12-31</endDate>
    </period>
  </context>
  </xbrl>

Note that, notwithstanding the lack of a calculation linkbase in this example, the total of 12000 in "h totalGross" is the most precise value that can be derived from sum of the values of gross for the 4 customers (3001+3000+3000+3000=12001 but the most precise value can be correct to only 3 significant figures because c gross has precision="3" and is hence 12000)

Example 26: Predicates for detecting duplicates

Node 1 Node 2 Type Predicate True Reason
np3 Xnnp3X context Identical no different nodes
np3 Xnnp3X context S-Equal yes <entity> and <period> are S-Equal

f name g name item S-Equal yes different context ids np3 and Xnnp3X which are nevertheless S-Equal
f name g name item P-Equal yes same parent element
f name g name item C-Equal yes equal contexts np3 and Xnnp3X
f name g name item V-Equal yes equal content "Bree"
f name g name item Duplicates yes P-Equal and C-Equal

b name c name item S-Equal yes different context ids np3 and Xnnp3X which are nevertheless S-Equal
b name c name item P-Equal no they are in different customer Tuples
b name c name item C-Equal yes equal contexts np3 and Xnnp3X
b name c name item V-Equal yes they both have content "Acme"
b name c name item Duplicates no not P-Equal, so V-Equal doesn't matter

b gross c gross item S-Equal no

b gross c gross item P-Equal no different parents
b gross c gross item C-Equal yes they both have context np3 and Unit u3
b gross c gross item V-Equal yes "3001" with precision 3 equals "3000"
b gross c gross item Duplicates no not P-Equal, so V-Equal doesn't matter

b customer c customer <tuple> S-Equal no different context ids np3 and Xnnp3X
b customer c customer <tuple> P-Equal yes same parent "a analysis"
b customer c customer <tuple> C-Equal n/a C-Equal doesn't apply to Tuples
b customer c customer <tuple> V-Equal n/a V-Equal doesn't apply to Tuples
b customer c customer <tuple> Duplicates yes P-Equal, and child items name, gross, returns and net are all V-Equal

b returns d returns item S-Equal no different values
b returns d returns item P-Equal no parents are b customer and d customer
b returns d returns item C-Equal yes both have context np3 and Unit u3
b returns d returns item V-Equal no b value is 100, d value is 500
b returns d returns item Duplicates no not P-Equal, so V-Equal doesn't matter

b customer d customer <tuple> S-Equal no different values of returns and net
b customer d customer <tuple> P-Equal yes same parent "a analysis"
b customer d customer <tuple> C-Equal n/a C-Equal doesn't apply to Tuples
b customer d customer <tuple> V-Equal n/a V-Equal doesn't apply to Tuples
b customer d customer <tuple> Duplicates no P-Equal, and child items b name and b gross are V-Equal to d name and d gross, and child items b returns and b net are not V-Equal to b returns and b net.

The equality predicates in the definition of Duplicate Items are ones of equal location, not equal content. In addition, it should be noted that attributes other than @contextRef, @unitRef, @precision and @decimals MUST be ignored for the purposes of this comparison (a consequence of the definition of s-equality for items). For example, additional @id attributes do not distinguish otherwise equal items. Whether items appear within a Tuple or not also impacts on whether they are duplicates, because the definition of duplicate items also carries the proviso that they have the same parent (i.e. are P-Equal).

When determining whether two Numeric Items are V-Equal (a predicate that is used in the definition of various other equality type predicates) it is necessary to take into consideration the values of @precision for the two numeric items. If @precision has not been specified for either of the two numeric items it is necessary to infer a value for it according to the rules in Section 4.6.6.

The XBRL definition of Duplicate Items and Tuples encompasses many, but not all, inconsistent and redundant data items in an XBRL Instance. Tuples that are not duplicates according to the XBRL definition might still have semantic inconsistencies. In the example above, customer elements "c" and "d" appear to contain data about the same customer, in the same context, but have inconsistent data; XBRL does not detect these as Duplicate Tuples even though to a human reader an element such as name indicates a "unique key" that is sufficient to determine that these two tuples are, in effect, C-Equal (same context, different content).

4.11 Footnotes

While Tuples deal with certain regularly-structured associations between elements that might appear in an XBRL instance, many documents include irregularly structured associations between facts. For instance, several facts may all be linked to the sentence "Including the effects of the merger with Example.com." To express these irregular linkages, XBRL uses the <footnoteLink> element to describe these irregularly structured associations between facts in an XBRL Instance.

4.11.1 The <footnoteLink> element

The <footnoteLink> element is an extended link. Its generic syntax is documented in Section 3.5.3. It contains Locators, resources and arcs that describe irregular relationships between facts in an XBRL Instance.

The XML Schema constraints on the <footnoteLink> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="footnoteLink" substitutionGroup="xl:extended">
<annotation>
<documentation>
footnote extended link element definition
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:extendedType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:loc"/>
<element ref="link:footnoteArc"/>
<element ref="link:footnote"/>
</choice>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

Example 27: A footnote in an XBRL instance

<xbrl
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns:ci
="http://www.xbrl.org/us/gaap/ci/2003/usfr-ci-2003"

  xmlns:fr
="http://www.xbrl-fr.org/xbrl/2003-02-29"

  xmlns:ISO4217
="http://www.xbrl.org2003/2003/iso4217"

  xmlns:xsi
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"

  xmlns:s
="http://mycompany.com/xbrl/taxonomy"

  xmlns:xbrli
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance"

  xmlns:xlink
="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"

  xmlns:xl
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink"

  xmlns
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.xbrl-fr.org/xbrl/2003-02-29 fr.xsd">
<link:schemaRef xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="fr.xsd"/>
<fr:propertyPlantEquipmentGross precision="4" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">1200</fr:propertyPlantEquipmentGross>
<fr:assetsTotal id="f1" precision="4" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">2600</fr:assetsTotal>
<fr:equityTotal id="f3" precision="4" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">1100</fr:equityTotal>
<fr:liabilitiesTotal id="f2" precision="4" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">2600</fr:liabilitiesTotal>
<link:footnoteLink xlink:type="extended" xlink:title="1" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/link">
<link:footnote xlink:type="resource" xlink:label="footnote1" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/footnote" xml:lang="en">Including the effects of the merger.</link:footnote>
<link:footnote xlink:type="resource" xlink:label="footnote1" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/footnote" xml:lang="fr">Y compris les effets de la fusion.</link:footnote>
<link:loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="fact1" xlink:href="#f1"/>
<link:loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="fact1" xlink:href="#f2"/>
<link:loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="fact1" xlink:href="#f3"/>
<link:footnoteArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="fact1" xlink:to="footnote1" xlink:title="view explanatory footnote" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/fact-footnote"/>
</link:footnoteLink>
<context id="c1">
<entity>
<identifier scheme="http://www.un.org/">Example plc</identifier>
</entity>
<period>
<instant>2001-08-16</instant>
</period>
<scenario name="Actual values">
<fr:scenarioType>actual</fr:scenarioType>
</scenario>
</context>
<unit id="u1">
<measure>ISO4217:EUR</measure>
</unit>
</xbrl>

Meaning: The one <footnoteArc> connects three facts to two footnotes. The two footnotes are in different languages. The @xlink:title attribute has been used on the <footnoteArc> element to document the nature of the resource being made accessible from the facts.

4.11.1.1 Locators in <footnoteLink> elements

<footnoteLink> elements MUST NOT contain Locators that are not <loc> elements. <loc> elements are documented in detail in Section 3.5.3.7. The <loc> element, when used in a <footnoteLink> , MUST only point to items or Tuples in the same XBRL Instance that contains the <loc> element itself.

4.11.1.2 The <footnote> element

The <footnote> element is the only resource allowed in <footnoteLink> elements. Generic resources are documented in detail in Section 3.5.3.8. The content of footnote resources is restricted relative to generic resources. Specifically, footnote resources MAY have mixed content containing a simple string, or a fragment of XHTML or a mixture of both.

One standard role is defined for <footnote> elements. Its value is:

http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/footnote

The XML Schema constraints on the <footnote> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="footnote" substitutionGroup="xl:resource">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the reference resource element
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType mixed="true">
<complexContent mixed="true">
<extension base="xl:resourceType">
<sequence>
<any namespace="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" processContents="skip" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>
4.11.1.2.1 The @xml:lang attribute on <footnote> elements

All footnote resources MUST have an @xml:lang attribute identifying the language used for the content of the footnote. The value of the @xml:lang attribute MUST conform to [XML] rules. (See http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xml-20001006#sec-lang-tag for details).

4.11.1.3 The <footnoteArc> element

The <footnoteArc> element has the same syntax as generic Extended Link arcs. See Section 3.5.3.9 for details.

The XML Schema constraints on the <footnoteArc> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="footnoteArc" type="xl:arcType" substitutionGroup="xl:arc">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Concrete arc for use in footnote extended links.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>
4.11.1.3.1 @xlink:arcrole attributes on <footnoteArc> elements

The value of the @xlink:arcrole attribute MUST be a URI that indicates the meaning of the arc.

One standard arc role value has been defined for arc role values on <footnoteArc> elements. Its value is:

http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/fact-footnote

This arc role value is for use on a <footnoteArc> from item or tuple Locators to footnote resources and it indicates that the <footnote> conveys human-readable information about the fact or facts.

4.11.1.3.2 @xlink:title attribute on <footnoteArc> elements (optional)

The @xlink:title attribute MAY be used to convey information about the relationship between facts and related footnotes to users navigating between those facts and footnotes. The content of the @xlink:title attribute MUST be a string. The @xlink:title attribute content MAY be made visible to users of [XLINK]-enabled applications.

If the @xlink:title attribute is insufficient for this purpose (for example, if the information needs to be provided in several languages), then titles, as defined in Section 3.5.3.9.6, MAY be used.

5 XBRL Taxonomies

Section 3.1 provides an overview of XBRL taxonomies.

A taxonomy is defined as an XML Schema [XML Schema Structures] and the set of directly referenced Extended Links (via the <linkbaseRef> element; see Section 5.1.2) and any extended links that are nested within the XML Schema. The XML Schemas in taxonomies are referred to, in this specification, as "Taxonomy Schemas".

5.1 Taxonomy schemas

A taxonomy MUST include a Taxonomy Schema. A taxonomy schema MUST be a valid instance of an XML Schema.

If Extended Links are included in a taxonomy, the Taxonomy Schema MUST contain <linkbaseRef> elements that point to their Linkbases (see Section 5.1.2) or the extended links MUST be nested in linkbases contained in the taxonomy schema itself.

The XBRL Instance schema defines the Abstract Elements item and tuple. As a consequence of this and of [XML Schema Structures] (in particular http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-1/#src-resolve) it is necessary for Taxonomy Schemas to import the XBRL instance schema xbrl-instance-2003-12-31.xsd if they define Concepts (elements in the item or tuple substitution groups). However, taxonomy schemas do not need to import the XBRL instance schema (for example, if their only purpose is to define syntax for segments and scenarios in contexts).

Taxonomy Schemas SHOULD specify a target namespace. If a target namespace attribute is so specified, its value MUST NOT be empty.

It will be necessary to include namespace declarations for several other schemas when creating Taxonomy Schemas, such as the namespace for XML Schema itself.

Example 28: A skeletal taxonomy schema showing linkbase references

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns:ci
="http://www.mycompany.com/taxonomy/2003-10-19"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.mycompany.com/taxonomy/2003-10-19">
<annotation>
<appinfo>
<link:linkbaseRef xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="linkbase_presentation.xml" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationLinkbaseRef" xlink:arcrole="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink/properties/linkbase"/>
<link:linkbaseRef xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="linkbase_calculation.xml" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/calculationLinkbaseRef" xlink:arcrole="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink/properties/linkbase"/>
<link:linkbaseRef xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="linkbase_definition.xml" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/definitionLinkbaseRef" xlink:arcrole="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink/properties/linkbase"/>
<link:linkbaseRef xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="linkbase_label.xml" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/labelLinkbaseRef" xlink:arcrole="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink/properties/linkbase"/>
<link:linkbaseRef xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="linkbase_reference.xml" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/referenceLinkbaseRef" xlink:arcrole="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink/properties/linkbase"/>
</appinfo>
</annotation>
<import namespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" schemaLocation="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/xbrl-instance-2003-12-31.xsd"/>
<!-- ... taxonomy elements declaration starts here ... -->
</schema>

XBRL taxonomies MAY be constructed to refer to other taxonomies; this extensibility of taxonomies is a critical feature of XBRL. In order to realise the complete potential of the technology, taxonomies must be extensible to accommodate virtually any business entity's unique reporting requirements while maintaining significant comparability across entities.

XBRL Taxonomy Schemas MAY import other taxonomy schemas and reference additional XBRL Linkbases as appropriate to achieve this extensibility.

Taxonomy Schemas MAY also define custom role values and custom arc role values for use in Linkbases. See Section 5.1.2 and Section 5.1.4 for details.

5.1.1 Concept definitions

Concepts are defined in Taxonomy Schemas. Each concept defined in a taxonomy schema is uniquely identified by an element's syntax definition in the taxonomy schema. To correspond to a concept definition, an XML Schema element definition has to specify the element's name, a substitution group, and type. All element names MUST be unique within a given taxonomy schema. The element MUST be a member of the substitution group that has either the XBRL <item> element or the XBRL <tuple> element as its head. The element MAY also include any of the other XML Schema attributes that can be used on an element's syntax definition, including @abstract and @nillable.

An element defining the syntax for a Concept SHOULD also have an @id attribute. Providing an @id attribute simplifies the content of the @xlink:href attribute on linkbase <loc> elements (see Section 3.5.1.2). Note that some XML Schema validators require uniqueness of all @id attribute values in a Taxonomy Schema and in all XML schemas that it imports or includes, directly or indirectly. To increase robustness to such interpretations of the XML Schema specification [XML Schema Datatypes], care SHOULD be taken to limit the extent to which @id attributes values are likely to clash with @id attribute values in related schemas. In the example below, this has been done by prefixing the element name with an additional string, "ci_".

Example 29: Typical element definitions in a taxonomy schema

<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
>
<!-- ... in this the example unused namespaces declarations are missing at root element ... -->
<!-- ... linkbases and imports go here ... -->
<element id="ci_preferredDividends" name="preferredDividends" xbrli:periodType="duration" type="xbrli:monetaryItemType" substitutionGroup="xbrli:item" nillable="true"/>
<element id="ci_stockBasedCompensationPolicy" name="stockBasedCompensationPolicy" xbrli:periodType="duration" type="xbrli:stringItemType" substitutionGroup="xbrli:item" nillable="true"/>
</schema>

Meaning: Two concepts have been defined, one associated with the preferredDividends element and the other associated with the stockBasedCompensationPolicy element. Both concepts can be represented by nil-value items in XBRL instances. The preferredDividends concept is required to appear in XBRL Instances as a Numeric Item with a duration Period in its context and the stockBasedCompensationPolicy concept is to appear in XBRL instances as a Non-Numeric Item with an instant period in its context.

XBRL also defines two attributes, @periodType and @balance, that MAY be used on the element syntax definitions.

5.1.1.1 The @periodType attribute

Some elements are associated with concepts that are measurable at an instant in time while others measure change over a period of time.

The XML Schema constraints on the @periodType attribute are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<attribute name="periodType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The periodType attribute (restricting the period for XBRL items)
</documentation>
</annotation>
<simpleType>
<restriction base="token">
<enumeration value="instant"/>
<enumeration value="duration"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
</schema>

The @periodType attribute MUST be used on elements in the substitution group for the <item> element. A value of instant for the periodType attribute indicates that the element, when used in an XBRL Instance, MUST always be associated with a context in which the Period is an instant. A value of duration indicates that the element, when used in an XBRL instance, MUST always be associated with a context in which the period is a duration, expressed using the startDate and endDate elements or expressed using the forever element.

Example 30: Instant and duration concept definitions

<element id="a1" name="changeInRetainedEarnings" xbrli:periodType="duration" type="xbrli:monetaryItemType" substitutionGroup="xbrli:item"/>
<element id="a2" name="fixedAssets" xbrli:balance="debit" xbrli:periodType="instant" type="xbrli:monetaryItemType" substitutionGroup="xbrli:item"/>

5.1.1.2 The @balance attribute (optional)

An optional @balance attribute MAY be added to the definition of an element if its type is monetaryItemType or derived from monetaryItemType. The @balance attribute MUST NOT be used on items that do not have type equal to the monetaryItemType or to a type that is derived from monetaryItemType.

If the idea of debit/credit balance is appropriate to the element, it MAY be indicated using this attribute.

The XML Schema constraints on the @balance attribute are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<attribute name="balance">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The balance attribute (imposes calculation relationship restrictions)
</documentation>
</annotation>
<simpleType>
<restriction base="token">
<enumeration value="debit"/>
<enumeration value="credit"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
</schema>

Example 31: Using the balance element to indicate normal debit and credit balances

<element id="netIncome" name="netIncome" xbrli:balance="credit" xbrli:periodType="duration" type="xbrli:monetaryItemType" substitutionGroup="xbrli:item"/>
<element id="fixedAssets" name="fixedAssets" xbrli:balance="debit" xbrli:periodType="instant" type="xbrli:monetaryItemType" substitutionGroup="xbrli:item"/>

The @balance attribute is important to applications that consume numbers related to accounting Concepts such as asset, liability, equity, revenue and expense. The @balance attribute (debit/credit) provides a definitive declaration of how values in XBRL Instances are to be authored and interpreted when the debit/credit designation is provided.

Table 5: Correct signage in an XBRL instance
Taxonomy element Account balance Sign of XBRL Instance element value
balance="credit" Credit Positive or zero
balance="credit" Debit Negative or zero
balance="debit" Debit Positive or zero
balance="debit" Credit Negative or zero

The numeric representation of a debit or credit item will normally (that is, more often than not) be positive in an XBRL instance.

Example 32: A concept appearing with positive and negative values in an XBRL instance

<my:netIncome precision="3" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">500</my:netIncome>
<my:netIncome precision="3" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c2">-200</my:netIncome>

Meaning: A profit of 500 and a loss of 200 in different contexts.

In addition, the assignment of @balance attributes constrains the legal weights in <calculationArc> elements.

Table 6: Constraints among the balance attribute and calculation arc weights
@balance attribute of "from" item @balance attribute of "to" item illegal values of the @weight attribute on <calculationArc>
debit debit Negative (< 0)
debit credit Positive (> 0)
credit debit Positive (> 0)
credit credit Negative (< 0)

5.1.1.3 Item data types

All item types MUST be one of the types listed below or derived from one of them by restriction. This set of XBRL provided base types covers the appropriate subset of XML Schema built-in types (both primitive and derived) [XML Schema Datatypes] as well as 4 types that have been identified as having particular relevance to the domain space addressed by XBRL (monetaryItemType, sharesItemType, pureItemType and fractionItemType) and hence explicitly defined in the XBRL namespace. All these types have simple content except for fractionItemType. Therefore, an item type in a taxonomy can never have complex content unless it is derived by restriction from fractionItemType.

The [XML Schema Structures] mechanism that enables the explicit assertion of the type of an element in an instance document (http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-1/index.html#xsi_type) MUST NOT be applied to any <item> or <tuple> in an XBRL Instance. The type of items and tuples MUST be specified in the appropriate Taxonomy Schema instead.

Table 7: Defined item types
XBRL Item Type Base type unitRef attribute
decimalItemType decimal yes
floatItemType float yes
doubleItemType double yes
The following numeric types are all based on the XML Schema built-in types that are derived by restriction from decimal.
integerItemType integer yes
nonPositiveIntegerItemType nonPositiveInteger yes
negativeIntegerItemType negativeInteger yes
longItemType long yes
intItemType int yes
shortItemType short yes
byteItemType byte yes
nonNegativeIntegerItemType nonNegativeInteger yes
unsignedLongItemType unsignedLong yes
unsignedIntItemType unsignedInt yes
unsignedShortItemType unsignedShort yes
unsignedByteItemType unsignedByte yes
positiveIntegerItemType positiveInteger yes
The following numeric types are all types that have been identified as having particular relevance to the domain space addressed by XBRL and are hence included in addition to the built-in types from XML Schema.
monetaryItemType xbrli:monetary yes
sharesItemType xbrli:shares yes
pureItemType xbrli:pure yes
fractionItemType complex type with the numerator being a decimal and the denominator being a non-zero, decimal (xbrli:nonZeroDecimal) yes
The following non-numeric types are all based on XML Schema built-in types that are not derived from either decimal or string.
stringItemType string no
booleanItemType Boolean no
hexBinaryItemType hexBinary no
base64BinaryItemType base64Binary no
anyURIItemType anyURI no
QNameItemType QName no
durationItemType duration no
dateTimeItemType xbrli:dateUnion (union of date and dateTime) no
timeItemType time no
dateItemType date no
gYearMonthItemType gYearMonth no
gYearItemType gYear no
gMonthDayItemType gMonthDay no
gDayItemType gDay no
gMonthItemType gMonth no
The following non-numeric types are all based on the XML Schema built-in types that are derived by restriction (and/or list) from string.
normalizedStringItemType normalizedString no
tokenItemType token no
languageItemType language no
NameItemType Name no
NCNameItemType NCName no

Some of these types, especially some of those that XML Schema has defined for backward compatibility with Document Type Definitions ("DTDs"), may never be needed for any XBRL application, but all are provided by XBRL for completeness and compatibility with XML Schema.

Example 33: Deriving an enumerated item type

<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"

  xmlns:my
="http://www.someCompany.com/taxonomy"
targetNamespace="http://www.someCompany.com/taxonomy" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<import namespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" schemaLocation="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/xbrl-instance-2003-12-31.xsd"/>
<complexType name="stateProvinceItemType">
<simpleContent>
<restriction base="xbrli:tokenItemType">
<enumeration value="MI"/>
<enumeration value="ON"/>
</restriction>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<element name="stateProvince" id="my_stateProvince" xbrli:periodType="instant" substitutionGroup="xbrli:item" type="my:stateProvinceItemType"/>
</schema>

Meaning: Deriving new item types by restriction from the XBRL provided item types is the only allowed method for XBRL Taxonomy Schemas. Earlier, in Example 18, the stateProvinceType was defined and used to define a sub-element of <segment> . Here, instead we define an XBRL concept appearing in the company's own taxonomy; note that the previously defined simple type is not used.

5.1.1.3.1 The monetary, shares and pure data types

The XBRL Instance schema defines the monetary data type, which specialises the XML Schema decimal type. All numeric elements in XBRL Taxonomies that represent monetary values MUST use the monetaryItemType data type or one derived from it. The shares data type represents share-based values and the pure data type represents growth rates, percentages, and other measures where an implicit numerator and denominator are expressed in the same Units. See Section 5.1.1.3 for definitions of the item types that use these special data types.

The XML Schema definitions of these data types are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Define the simple types used as a base for for item types
</documentation>
</annotation>
<simpleType name="monetary">
<annotation>
<documentation>
the monetary type serves as the datatype for those financial concepts in a taxonomy which denote units in a currency. Instance items with this type must have a unit of measure from the ISO 4217 namespace of currencies.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="decimal"/>
</simpleType>
<simpleType name="shares">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This datatype serves as the datatype for share based financial concepts.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="decimal"/>
</simpleType>
<simpleType name="pure">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This datatype serves as the type for dimensionless numbers such as percentage change, growth rates, and other ratios where the numerator and denominator have the same units.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="decimal"/>
</simpleType>
</schema>
5.1.1.3.2 The fractionItemType data type

The values of some facts that are to be reported may be known exactly but it may not be possible to represent them exactly using any of the built-in data types provided for in XML Schema. Examples are fractional values whose decimal representation contains recurring digits such as 1/3 (whose decimal representation is 0.333333…). To enable XBRL instances to report these exact values, a complex type, fractionItemType, is provided. All values of fractionItemType are exact. The @precision and @decimals attributes MUST not occur on items with the fractionItemType.

The XML Schema constraints on the fractionItemType are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="numerator" type="decimal"/>
<element name="denominator" type="xbrli:nonZeroDecimal"/>
<complexType name="fractionItemType" final="extension">
<sequence>
<element ref="xbrli:numerator"/>
<element ref="xbrli:denominator"/>
</sequence>
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:essentialNumericItemAttrs"/>
</complexType>
</schema>

Example 34: Representing fractions

Fractional value Representation

1/3

<myTaxonomy:oneThird id="oneThird" unitRef="u1" contextRef="numC1">
<numerator>1</numerator>
<denominator>3</denominator>
</myTaxonomy:oneThird>

The numerator element MUST contain numeric values. The denominator element MUST contain a numeric value that is non-zero and finite.

5.1.2 The <linkbaseRef> element

The <linkbaseRef> element MAY be placed among the set of nodes identified by the XPath [XPath 1.0] path "//xsd:schema/xsd:annotation/xsd:appinfo/*" in a Taxonomy Schema. In a taxonomy schema, the <linkbaseRef> element identifies a Linkbase that MUST always participate in a DTS if that taxonomy schema participates in the DTS.

The syntax of the <linkbaseRef> element in Taxonomy Schemas is identical to the syntax of the <linkbaseRef> element in XBRL instances. For more details, see Section 4.2.5.

5.1.3 Defining custom role types - the <roleType> element

The <roleType> element contains a custom role type definition. The <roleType> element describes the custom role type by defining the @roleURI of the role type, declaring the elements that the role type may be used on, and providing a human-readable definition of the role type.

Role types define custom values for the @xlink:role attribute on the [XLINK] Extended Link and resource elements. The <roleType> element MUST be located among the set of nodes identified by the [XPath 1.0] path "//xsd:schema/xsd:annotation/xsd:appinfo/*". The role values that are defined by this specification (as standard role attribute values) MUST NOT be redefined using the <roleType> element.

There MUST NOT be more than one <roleType> element with the same @roleURI attribute value within a Taxonomy Schema. Within a DTS, there MAY be more than one <roleType> element with the same @roleURI attribute value. However, all <roleType> elements with the same @roleURI attribute value MUST be S-Equal.

The value of the @roleURI attribute identifies the @xlink:role attribute value that is being defined. The values of the <usedOn> sub-elements identify which elements are allowed to use the custom role type. Since <roleType> elements are pointed to via a <roleRef> element in Linkbases that use the custom role type, the <roleType> element MAY have an @id attribute.

Example 35: Defining a custom role type

Example: The role type definition of a role: "http://www.mycomp.com/role/endnote" to indicate those footnotes in an XBRL Instance that ought to be presented only at the end of a document.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.mycomp.com/mytaxonomy" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<annotation>
<appinfo>
<link:roleType roleURI="http://www.mycompany.com/role/endnote" id="endnote">
<link:definition>
A footnote that should be displayed only at the end of a document
</link:definition>
<link:usedOn>
link:footnote
</link:usedOn>
</link:roleType>
</appinfo>
</annotation>
</schema>

This <roleType> element defines a role that could be used as follows:

<link:roleRef xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="mycomproles.xsd#endnote" roleURI="http://www.mycomp.com/role/endnote"/>
<!-- &#8230; -->
<link:footnote xlink:role="http://www.mycomp.com/role/endnote" xlink:type="resource" xlink:label="endnote1"> Excluding the effects of the merger and contingent liabilities. </link:footnote>
The @xlink:role value is resolved back to the <roleType> element by finding the <roleRef> element with a @roleURI attribute value that matches the @xlink:role value. The @xlink:href attribute on the <roleRef> element points directly (via the fragment identifier) to the <roleType> element with the @id attribute equal to "endnote" in the mycomproles.xsd Taxonomy Schema. The <roleType> element has a matching @roleURI attribute value.

The XML Schema constraints on the <roleType> element and its sub-elements are set out below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="definition" type="string">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The element to use for human-readable definition of custom roles and arc roles.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="usedOn" type="QName">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definitionof the usedOn element - used to identify what elements may use a taxonomy defined role or arc role value.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="roleType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The roleType element definition - used to define custom role values in XBRL extended links.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<sequence>
<element ref="link:definition" minOccurs="0"/>
<element ref="link:usedOn" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
<attribute name="roleURI" type="xlink:nonEmptyURI" use="required"/>
<attribute name="id" type="ID"/>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

5.1.3.1 The @roleURI attribute

The @roleURI attribute MUST occur and MUST contain the role value being defined. When the custom role type is used, the @xlink:role attribute value matches the value of the @roleURI.

5.1.3.2 The @id attribute on <roleType> elements (optional)

The <roleType> element MAY have an @id attribute. The value of the @id attribute MUST conform to the [XML] rules for attributes with the ID type (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml#NT-TokenizedType). Providing an @id attribute simplifies the content of the @xlink:href attribute on <roleRef> elements.

5.1.3.3 The <definition> element in <roleType> elements (optional)

The <roleType> element MAY contain a <definition> element. The content of a <definition> element MUST be a string giving meaning to the role type.

5.1.3.4 The <usedOn> element in <roleType> elements

The <roleType> element MAY contain one or more <usedOn> elements. The <usedOn> element identifies which elements MAY use the role type being defined. Within a <roleType> element there MUST NOT be S-Equal  <usedOn> elements. Standard extended link elements and Standard Resource Elements that use the defined role type MUST be identified with a <usedOn> element in the <roleType> element. Note that Custom Extended Link Elements and Custom Resource Elements are not governed by this constraint.

5.1.4 Defining custom arc role types - the arcroleType element

The <arcroleType> element contains a custom arc role definition. The <arcroleType> element describes the custom arc role type by declaring the arc role value, declaring the elements that the arc role type may be used on, declaring the type of cycles that are allowed for a network of relationships using the arc role type, and providing a human-readable definition of the meaning of the arc role type.

The <arcroleType> element MUST be among the set of nodes identified by the [XPath 1.0] path "//xsd:schema/xsd:annotation/xsd:appinfo/*". The arc role values defined by this specification (as standard arc role values) MUST NOT be redefined using the <arcroleType> element.

There MUST NOT be more than one <arcroleType> element with the same @arcroleURI attribute value within a Taxonomy Schema. Within a DTS, there MAY be more than one <arcroleType> element with the same @arcroleURI attribute value. However, all <arcroleType> elements with the same @arcroleURI attribute value MUST be S-Equal.

The value of the @arcroleURI identifies the @xlink:arcrole attribute value that is being defined. The values of the <usedOn> sub-elements identify which arcs may use this arc role type. Because <arcroleType> elements are pointed to via an <arcroleRef> element in Linkbases that use the custom arc role value, the <arcroleType> element MAY have an @id attribute.

Example 36: Defining a custom arc role value

Example: The definition of an arc role value: "http://www.mycomp.com/arcrole/average-item" that connects items in the calculation linkbase

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.mycomp.com/mytaxonomy" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<annotation>
<appinfo>
<link:arcroleType arcroleURI="http://www.mycomp.com/arcrole/average-item" id="average-item" cyclesAllowed="none">
<link:usedOn>
link:calculationArc
</link:usedOn>
</link:arcroleType>
</appinfo>
</annotation>
</schema>
<link:arcroleRef xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="mycomparcroles.xsd#average-item" arcroleURI="http://www.mycomp.com/arcrole/average-item"/>
<!-- &#8230; -->
<link:calculationArc xlink:arcrole="http://www.mycomp.com/arcrole/average-item" xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="salesAverage" xlink:to="salesDetail" link:weight="1"/>
The @xlink:arcrole value is resolved back to the <arcroleType> element by finding the <arcroleRef> element with an @arcroleURI attribute value that matches the @xlink:arcrole value. The @xlink:href attribute on the <arcroleRef> element points directly (via the fragment identifier) to the <arcroleType> element with the @id attribute equal to "average-item" in the mycomparcroles.xsd Taxonomy Schema. The arcroleType element has a matching @arcroleURI attribute value.

The XML Schema constraints on the <arcroleType> element and its sub-elements are set out below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="definition" type="string">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The element to use for human-readable definition of custom roles and arc roles.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="usedOn" type="QName">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the usedOn element - used to identify what elements may use a taxonomy defined role or arc role value.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="arcroleType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The arcroleType element definition - used to define custom arc role values in XBRL extended links.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<sequence>
<element ref="link:definition" minOccurs="0"/>
<element ref="link:usedOn" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
<attribute name="arcroleURI" type="xlink:nonEmptyURI" use="required"/>
<attribute name="id" type="ID"/>
<attribute name="cyclesAllowed" use="required">
<simpleType>
<restriction base="NMTOKEN">
<enumeration value="any"/>
<enumeration value="undirected"/>
<enumeration value="none"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

5.1.4.1 The @arcroleURI attribute

The @arcroleURI attribute MUST occur and MUST contain the arc role value being defined. When the defined arc role type is used, the @xlink:arcrole attribute value matches the value of the @arcroleURI.

5.1.4.2 The @id attribute on <arcroleType> elements (optional)

The <arcroleType> element MAY have an @id attribute. The value of the @id attribute MUST conform to the [XML] rules for attributes with the ID type (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml#NT-TokenizedType). Providing an @id attribute simplifies the content of the @xlink:href attribute on <arcroleRef> elements.

5.1.4.3 The @cyclesAllowed attribute

The <arcroleType> element MUST have a @cyclesAllowed attribute that identifies the type of cycles that are allowed in a network of relationships as defined in Section 3.5.3.9.7.3. Fully conformant XBRL processors MUST detect and signal networks of relationships with custom arc role types that violate the cycle restrictions documented with this attribute for networks of relationships with custom arcroles appearing on standard arcs within standard Extended Links. Note that networks involving Custom Arc Elements are not governed by this constraint, nor are networks involving Standard Arc Elements appearing in custom extended links.

Networks of relationships in XBRL, as defined in Section 3.5.3.9.7.3, form directed graphs. Because of the way XPointer [XPOINTER] is used in XBRL, the vertices (nodes) in the graph will always correspond to XML elements (see Section 3.5.4). In the case of the relationships specified in Section 5.2, the vertices will correspond to either Concepts or resources. Each relationship in the network corresponds to a directed edge in the graph -- that is, an ordered pair of vertices (u,v).

A path is a sequence of vertices <v0, v1, ... ,vn-1, vn>.

A directed graph contains a directed cycle if there is a path from any node back to itself when edge directions are respected. That is, when there exists a sequence of vertices <v0, v1, ... ,vn-1, vn> such that v0 = vn, and for each vi, with 0<=i<n, there exists a directed edge (vi, vi+1).

Example 37: Directed cycles

Directed cycles <a,a> and <b,c,b>.

A directed graph contains an undirected cycle if there is a path from any node back to itself when edge directions are ignored. That is, when there exists a sequence of vertices <v0, v1, ... ,vn-1, vn> such that v0 = vn, and for each vi, with 0<=i<n, there exists a directed edge (vi, vi+1) or a directed edge (vi+1, vi) that is distinct from all edges previously used in the path.

Example 38: Undirected cycles

Undirected cycles <d,f,e,d> and <g,h,i,j,g>. Note the backwards traversal of edges (d,e), (i,h), and (g,j).

Note that any graph that contains a directed cycle necessarily contains an undirected cycle.

The @cyclesAllowed attribute MUST have one of the following values:

Value Meaning

any

The graph MAY contain any number of directed cycles and any number of undirected cycles.

undirected

The graph MAY contain any number of undirected cycles, but MUST NOT contain any directed cycles.

none

The graph MUST NOT contain directed or undirected cycles.

5.1.4.4 The <definition> element on <arcroleType> elements (optional)

The <arcroleType> element MAY contain a <definition> element. The <definition> element MUST contain a string giving human-readable meaning to the arc role type.

5.1.4.5 The <usedOn> element on <arcroleType> elements

The <arcroleType> element MAY contain one or more <usedOn> elements. The <usedOn> element identifies which elements MAY use the arc role type being defined. Standard Arc Elements that use the defined arc role type MUST be identified with a <usedOn> element in the <arcroleType> element whenever they appear in standard extended links. Note that Custom Arc Elements are not governed by this constraint, nor are standard arc elements that appear in custom extended links. Within an <arcroleType> element there MUST NOT be S-Equal  <usedOn> elements.

5.1.5 Prohibit <redefine>

The [XML Schema Structures] <redefine> construct MUST NOT appear in any Taxonomy Schema. Use of <redefine> could cause ambiguity in respect of the target of links in Linkbases that reference Locators and so it is prohibited.

5.2 Taxonomy linkbases

The Extended Links in a taxonomy provide additional information about Concepts by expressing relationships between concepts (inter-concept relationships) or associating concepts with documentation about their meaning. The extended links in a taxonomy are grouped into Linkbases, as defined in Section 3.5.1.5. Taxonomies currently use five different types of extended link: definition, calculation, presentation, label and reference. The first three types of extended link express inter-concept relationships, while the last two express relationships between concepts and their documentation.

An example of an inter-concept relationship is a calculation Linkbase that expresses a relationship between "cash" and "current assets" where "cash" sums up to "current assets". An example of a relationship between a Concept and additional documentation is a label linkbase that expresses a relationship between the concept "cash" and a human-readable label in English, such as "Cash" and additional labels for cash in other languages. Also, the label linkbase may contain additional labels for different purposes, such as a label of "Opening Cash Balance", "Closing Cash Balance" and "Total Cash". Although the concept is always referred to as "cash" the labels provide multiple ways of tagging the concept for display purposes.

The linkbases MAY exist in a separate document from the Taxonomy Schema, although they MAY alternatively be embedded in the taxonomy schema among the set of nodes identified by the XPath [XPath 1.0] path "//xsd:schema/xsd:annotation/xsd:appinfo/*". When a linkbase in a taxonomy is not embedded in the taxonomy schema document, the taxonomy schema MUST contain a <linkbaseRef> to point to the document containing the linkbase.

There are five kinds of Extended Links used in XBRL taxonomies.

  • Relation links (calculation, definition, and presentation) manage the relations between taxonomy elements.
  • Label links manage the text associated with taxonomy elements in various languages.
  • Reference links manage the references to authoritative literature (either online or paper).

Each of these Extended Links MUST be held in an [XLINK] document container. The [XLINK] document container MUST be a <linkbase> element located either:

  1. among the set of nodes identified by the XPath [XPath 1.0] path "//xsd:schema/xsd:annotation/xsd:appinfo/*" in the Taxonomy Schema; or
  2. at the root element of a separate document.

In the presentation, calculation, and definition Extended Links in a DTS, Arcs organise XBRL Concepts into networks of relationships that associate each concept with other concepts. In label and reference extended links, arcs represent networks of relationships between concepts and their documentation (labels and references). See Section 3.5.3.9.7.3 for details about networks of relationships.

Each network of inter-concept relationships in a DTS MAY contain root Concepts. A root concept is an XBRL concept that, for a given network of relationships, is not an XML fragment on the "to" side of any relationship in the network. It is possible for a concept to be a root concept in one network of relationships but not in another network of relationships. Note that this implies that any disconnected concept, i.e. one that is neither on the "to" side nor the "from" side of any relationship in any network, is a root concept.

The presentation, definition, and calculation Extended Links are not required in order to specify the formatting of a report derived from a collection of XBRL Instances. However, XBRL instance consuming applications are free to use the semantic information provided in a DTS to format such reports as they deem appropriate.

Taxonomy authors may or may not find it useful to keep the networks of presentation, calculation and definition relationships in some kind of correspondence.

Inter-concept relationships and relationships between Concepts and resources that document them MAY be overridden or prohibited (see Section 3.5.3.9.7 for details). As an example of prohibition, consider the situation of a third party desiring to create a new "sub-total" concept intervening between "children" concepts that already have summation-item arcs to the "total" concept (see Section 5.2.5.2 for details about summation-item arcs and calculation relationships in Extended Links). The creator of the sub-total concept will add arcs from the sub-total Concept to the children concepts and from the total concept to the sub-total concept. There would then be two paths from the children concepts to the total concept, one using the new arcs through the sub-total concept, and the other using the original arcs direct from the summation concept. In the case of calculation links, this could result in the double counting of values. The creator of the sub-total concept SHOULD create prohibiting arcs to prevent this, effectively removing the arcs going directly from the total concept to the children concepts from the network of relationships in the calculation.

Example 39: Using relationship prohibition to insert a new sub-total into a calculation network

One or more relationships in a network of relationships can form a cycle (that is, there may be a path in the network from an XML fragment back to that same XML fragment without involving any one relationship more than once). Depending on the semantics of the relationships in a network, different types of cycles may be semantically coherent, or they may represent a semantic inconsistency that processing applications MAY choose to detect.

Fully conformant XBRL processors MUST detect cycles that constitute semantic inconsistencies. Semantically inconsistent cycles are identified for each network that is given semantic meaning in this specification.

Example 40: Types of cycles

To illustrate networks of relationships between Concepts, consider the following concepts that might be defined in a taxonomy (note that the label would not be part of the element; labels are just shown to provide clarity):

Example 41: Elements of a financial reporting taxonomy

Label Element Name Balance Substitution Group
Income Statement incomeStatement

… other taxonomy elements (various) (various) (various)
Net Income Before Tax netIncomeBeforeTax credit item
Taxes taxes debit item
Net Income After Tax netIncomeAfterTax credit item
Extraordinary Items extraordinaryItems debit item
Net Income netIncome credit item
Performance Measures performanceMeasures

item

Suppose that the mathematical relations that exist between the Concepts expressed as elements within the taxonomy as documented by some source are as follows:

  1. netIncomeAfterTax = netIncomeBeforeTax - taxes
  2. netIncome = netIncomeAfterTax - extraordinaryItems

The calculation Linkbase might then contain calculation extended links to facilitate computation of netIncome, netIncomeBeforeTax, netIncomeAfterTax, per the formulae above and expressed in a tree hierarchy in an application.

Example 42: Hierarchy in a calculation linkbase

Example: Calculation hierarchy in which each item contributes to a summation.

Arcs are annotated with the numeric weight in parentheses. The weight indicates the @weight attribute value of the calculation link expressing how the element contributes to the calculation/summation.

The definition Linkbase might also contain definition extended links that relate Concepts to other concepts. In the case below, performanceMeasures is an element defined in the taxonomy and the types of performance measures are: netIncome, netIncomeBeforeTax, and netIncomeAfterTax. The @xlink:arcrole of the link, an absolute URI such as http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/general-special, explains the type of definition relationship of the relation. See Section 3.5.3.9.4 for details.

Example 43: Hierarchy of general-special arcs in a definition linkbase

Example: Definition hierarchy in which various concepts are defined to be "Performance Measures."

Arcs are annotated with their "order" attribute used for presenting the hierarchy.

Presentation links are used to arrange taxonomy elements into a hierarchy and specific ordering. In general, different uses will require different sets of presentation links. There is one set of users - taxonomy developers and domain experts working with a taxonomy - whose presentation needs remain relevant throughout the entire lifecycle of a taxonomy. In some sense this view is "context free" as opposed to the presentation of instance data that is "context dependent." When taxonomies are published they cannot contain all possible presentations but they MAY contain at least one "developer's eye" view, which is "context free" in the sense that it does not need to take XBRL Instance contexts into account. The presentation Linkbase in this example could contain presentation links to organise Concepts to look like line items in a financial statement. Another presentation linkbase could contain links to organise a subset of these same concepts into a data collection form.

Example 44: Hierarchy in a presentation linkbase

Example: Presentation hierarchy that mimics the order in which line items might appear on an income statement.

This view might be used in applications to present taxonomies to users of the application. The arcs are annotated with their "order" attribute.

In these examples, the three Linkbases are trees, but they need not be strict trees at all. This is particularly true for the calculation linkbase. There are several ways to calculate movements in Equity, for example: one might net the issuing and retirement of common stock, net the issuing and retirement of preferred stock, and add those two - or one might add up all the issuance of stock whether common or preferred, and net it against the retirement of common and preferred. Although the calculations are hierarchical (that is, there are no loops), they do not form a tree.

5.2.1 The <linkbase> element

The <linkbase> element is fully documented in Section 3.5.2.

5.2.2 The <labelLink> element

The <labelLink> element is an extended link. Its generic syntax is documented in Section 3.5.3. It is intended to contain relationships between Concepts and textual documentation and labels for those concepts.

The XML Schema constraints on the <labelLink> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="labelLink" substitutionGroup="xl:extended">
<annotation>
<documentation>
label extended link element definition
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:extendedType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:loc"/>
<element ref="link:labelArc"/>
<element ref="link:label"/>
</choice>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

5.2.2.1 Locators in <labelLink> elements

<labelLink> elements MUST NOT contain Locators that are not <loc> elements. <loc> elements are documented in detail in Section 3.5.3.7. The <loc> element, when used in a <labelLink> , MUST only point to Concepts in Taxonomy Schemas or to label resources as defined in 5.2.2.2.

5.2.2.2 The <label> element

Although each taxonomy defines a single set of elements representing a set of business reporting Concepts, the human-readable XBRL documentation for those concepts, including labels (strings used as human-readable names for each concept) and other explanatory documentation, is contained in a resource element in the label Linkbase. The resource uses the @xml:lang attribute to specify the language used (via the XML standard lang attribute) and an optional classification of the purpose of the documentation (via a role attribute).

This ability to provide documentation in a variety of different languages enables XBRL Concepts to be more easily reported in a multilingual environment.

Documentation of XBRL Concepts MUST be contained in <label> elements in <labelLink> extended links. The <label> element is an [XLINK] resource. Its generic syntax is documented in Section 3.5.3.8. The <label> element MUST have the standard @xml:lang attribute, and it MUST appear inside a <labelLink> element. This content of the <label> element is mixed, allowing a simple string, a fragment of XHTML or a combination of both.

XBRL processors are NOT REQUIRED to detect or display Concept documentation that appears anywhere other than in a <label> element.

The XML Schema constraints on the <label> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="label" substitutionGroup="xl:resource">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the label resource element.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType mixed="true">
<complexContent mixed="true">
<extension base="xl:resourceType">
<sequence>
<any namespace="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" processContents="skip" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

Example 45: Label resource examples

<label xlink:type="resource" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/label" xlink:label="ci_currentAssets_en" xml:lang="en">Current Assets</label>
<label
  xmlns:xhtml
="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
xlink:type="resource" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/label" xlink:label="ci_netIncome_en" xml:lang="en">
<xhtml:b>Net Income</xhtml:b>
(Loss)</label>
5.2.2.2.1 The @xml:lang attribute on <label> elements

All <label> resources MUST have an @xml:lang attribute identifying the language used for the content of the label. The value of the @xml:lang attribute MUST conform to [XML] rules. (See http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xml-20001006#sec-lang-tag for details).

5.2.2.2.2 The @xlink:role attribute on <label> elements (optional)

Label resources MAY contain an @xlink:role attribute, which SHOULD distinguish between <label> resources by the nature of the XBRL Concept documentation that they provide. Table 8 specifies all standard @xlink:role attribute values and their meanings for label resources.

Table 8: Standard label role attribute values.
<label> resource @xlink:role attribute value Meaning
(Omitted role attribute) Standard label for a Concept.
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/label Standard label for a Concept.
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/terseLabel Short label for a Concept, often omitting text that should be inferable when the concept is reported in the context of other related concepts.
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/verboseLabel Extended label for a Concept, making sure not to omit text that is required to enable the label to be understood on a stand alone basis.
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/positiveLabel http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/positiveTerseLabel http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/positiveVerboseLabel http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/negativeLabel http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/negativeTerseLabel http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/negativeVerboseLabel http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/zeroLabel http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/zeroTerseLabel http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/zeroVerboseLabel Label for a Concept, when the value being presented is positive (negative, zero). For example, the standard and standard positive labels might be "profit after tax" and the standard negative labels "loss after tax", the terse label and terse positive labels might both be "profit", while the negative terse label might be "loss".
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/totalLabel The label for a Concept for use in presenting values associated with the concept when it is being reported as the total of a set of other values.
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/periodStartLabel http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/periodEndLabel The label for a Concept with periodType="instant" for use in presenting values associated with the concept when it is being reported as a start (end) of period value.
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/documentation Documentation of a Concept, providing an explanation of its meaning and its appropriate usage and any other documentation deemed necessary.
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/definitionGuidance A precise definition of a Concept, providing an explanation of its meaning and its appropriate usage.
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureGuidance An explanation of the disclosure requirements relating to the Concept. Indicates whether the disclosure is
  • mandatory (i.e. prescribed by authoritative literature);
  • recommended (i.e. encouraged by authoritative literature;
  • common practice (i.e. not prescribed by authoritative literature, but disclosure is common);
  • structural completeness (i.e., included to complete the structure of the taxonomy).
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationGuidance An explanation of the rules guiding presentation (placement and/or labelling) of this Concept in the context of other concepts in one or more specific types of business reports. For example, "Net Surplus should be disclosed on the face of the Profit and Loss statement".
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/measurementGuidance An explanation of the method(s) required to be used when measuring values associated with this Concept in business reports.
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/commentaryGuidance Any other general commentary on the Concept that assists in determining definition, disclosure, measurement, presentation or usage.
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/exampleGuidance An example of the type of information intended to be captured by the Concept.

Example 46: Arc between a concept and one of its labels

<label xlink:type="resource" xlink:label="A" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/label" xml:lang="en">Current Assets</label>
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:href="us_bs_v2.xsd#currentAssets" xlink:label="B"/>
<labelArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="B" xlink:to="A" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/concept-label"/>

Meaning: The <label> resource contains the text of the label and the arc element associates the concept with the label.

5.2.2.3 The <labelArc> element

The <labelArc> element is an [XLINK] arc. Its generic syntax is defined in Section 3.5.3.9. In <labelLink> elements, it connects Concepts with <label> resources.

The XML Schema constraints on the <labelArc> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="labelArc" type="xl:arcType" substitutionGroup="xl:arc">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Concrete arc for use in label extended links.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>

One standard arc role value is defined for <labelArc> elements. Its value is:

http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/concept-label

This arc role value is for use on a <labelArc> from a concept Locator ( <loc> element) to a <label> element and it indicates that the label conveys human-readable information about the Concept.

<labelArc> elements cannot describe cyclic relationships between Concepts because they only relate concepts to <label> resources, not other concepts. For this reason, no restrictions on cyclic <labelArc> networks are prescribed.

The label elements that participate in a relationship described by a <labelArc> element MUST be [XLINK] local resources except when the use attribute on the labelArc is "prohibited", in which case the <label> elements MAY be [XLINK] local resources and/or [XLINK] remote resources.

5.2.3 The <referenceLink> element

The <referenceLink> element is an extended link. Its generic syntax is documented in Section 3.5.3. It is intended to contain relationships between Concepts and references to authoritative statements in the published business, financial and accounting literature that give meaning to the concepts.

The XML Schema constraints on the <referenceLink> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="referenceLink" substitutionGroup="xl:extended">
<annotation>
<documentation>
reference extended link element definition
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:extendedType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:loc"/>
<element ref="link:referenceArc"/>
<element ref="link:reference"/>
</choice>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

Example 47: Sample values of @xlink:role for several <referenceLink> elements

  • http://www.my.org/role/balanceSheet
  • http://www.my.org/role/incomeStatement
  • http://www.my.org/role/statementOfComprehensiveIncome
  • http://www.my.org/role/statementOfStockholdersEquity
  • http://www.my.org/role/cashFlows
Meaning: The taxonomy has given a "role" to each referenceLink extended link to partition the Extended Links in an accounting-related taxonomy based on which part of a financial statement they relate to.

5.2.3.1 Locators in <referenceLink> elements

<referenceLink> elements MUST NOT contain Locators that are not <loc> elements. <loc> elements are documented in detail in Section 3.5.3.7. The <loc> element, when used in a <referenceLink> , MUST only point to Concepts in Taxonomy Schemas or to reference resources as defined in Section 5.2.3.2.

5.2.3.2 The reference element

The <reference> element enables XBRL taxonomies to ground the definitions of Concepts in authoritative statements in published business, financial and accounting literature. The <reference> element SHOULD only provide information necessary to find the reference materials that are relevant to understanding appropriate usage of the concept being defined. They MUST NOT contain the content of those reference materials themselves. Where textual documentation is required to complete the definition of an XBRL context, this MUST be contained in XBRL <label> elements as documented in Section 5.2.2.2.

The <reference> element is an [XLINK] resource. Its generic syntax is documented in Section 3.5.3.8. The <reference> element MUST appear inside a <referenceLink> element.

The XML Schema constraints on the <reference> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="part" type="anySimpleType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the reference part element - for use in reference resources.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="reference" substitutionGroup="xl:resource">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the reference resource element.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType mixed="true">
<complexContent mixed="true">
<extension base="xl:resourceType">
<sequence>
<element ref="link:part" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

Reference elements are composed of parts. Since the division of references into parts varies in every jurisdiction, part is an abstract element defined in this specification. Taxonomies MAY define elements that substitute for part, allowing them to be included inside reference elements.

Example 48: Arc between a concept and supporting references

<linkbase
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns:ref
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/ref"

  xmlns
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"
>
<referenceLink xlink:type="extended" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/link">
<!-- locator for element -->
<loc xlink:type="locator" xlink:href="samp001.xsd#s_customerName" xlink:label="s_customerName"/>
<!-- arcs -->
<referenceArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="s_customerName" xlink:to="s_customerName_REF" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/concept-reference"/>
<!-- references all with the same xlink:label -->
<reference xlink:type="resource" xlink:label="s_customerName_REF" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/definitionRef">
<ref:name>Handbook of Business Reporting</ref:name>
<ref:pages>5</ref:pages>
</reference>
<reference xlink:type="resource" xlink:label="s_customerName_REF" xlink:role="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/measurementRef">
<ref:name>Handbook of Business Reporting</ref:name>
<ref:pages>45-50</ref:pages>
</reference>
</referenceLink>
</linkbase>

Meaning: The <reference> elements contain two literature citations, with different @xlink:role attributes to distinguish them. The arc relates the concept at to both references. The elements name and pages are defined as members of the part substitution group in the taxonomy referred to by the ref: namespace prefix, as shown below:

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns:ref
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/ref"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/ref" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<import namespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" schemaLocation="xbrl-linkbase.xsd"/>
<element name="name" type="string" substitutionGroup="link:part"/>
<element name="number" type="string" substitutionGroup="link:part"/>
<element name="paragraph" type="string" substitutionGroup="link:part"/>
<element name="subparagraph" type="string" substitutionGroup="link:part"/>
<element name="clause" type="string" substitutionGroup="link:part"/>
<element name="pages" type="string" substitutionGroup="link:part"/>
</schema>

Example 49: Reference resource

<reference xlink:type="resource" xlink:label="ci_propertyPlantAndEquipmentNet_APB">
<ci:name>ABP</ci:name>
<ci:page>42</ci:page>
</reference>
5.2.3.2.1 The @xlink:role attribute on reference elements (optional)

Reference elements MAY contain an optional @xlink:role attribute, which MUST distinguish between reference elements by the nature of the XBRL Concept documentation that they make external reference to. Table 9 specifies the standard @xlink:role attribute values and their meanings for reference resources. These parallel the standard @xlink:role attribute values for <label> resources.

Table 9: Reference role attribute values.
reference resource @xlink:role attribute value Meaning
(Omitted role attribute) Standard reference for a Concept
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/reference Standard reference for a Concept
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/definitionRef Reference to documentation that details a precise definition of the Concept.
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/mandatoryDisclosureRef http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/recommendedDisclosureRef Reference to documentation that details an explanation of the disclosure requirements relating to the Concept. Specified categories include:
  • mandatory
  • recommended
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/unspecifiedDisclosureRef Reference to documentation that details an explanation of the disclosure requirements relating to the Concept. Unspecified categories include, but are not limited to:
  • common practice
  • structural completeness
The latter categories do not reference documentation but are indicated in the link role to indicate why the Concept has been included in the taxonomy.
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef Reference to documentation which details an explanation of the presentation, placement or labelling of this Concept in the context of other Concepts in one or more specific types of business reports
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/measurementRef Reference concerning the method(s) required to be used when measuring values associated with this Concept in business reports
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/commentaryRef Any other general commentary on the Concept that assists in determining appropriate usage
http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/exampleRef Reference to documentation that illustrates by example the application of the Concept that assists in determining appropriate usage.

5.2.3.3 The <referenceArc> element

The <referenceArc> element is an [XLINK] arc. Its generic syntax is defined in Section 3.5.3.9. In <referenceLink> elements, it connects Concepts with reference resources.

The XML Schema constraints on the <referenceArc> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="referenceArc" type="xl:arcType" substitutionGroup="xl:arc">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Concrete arc for use in reference extended links.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>

One standard arc role value is defined for <referenceArc> elements. Its value is:

http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/concept-reference

This arc role value is for use on a <referenceArc> from a concept Locator ( <loc> element) to a reference resource and it indicates that the reference is to materials documenting the meaning of the Concept.

<referenceArc> elements cannot describe cyclic relationships between Concepts because they represent relationships only between concepts and reference resources, not between concepts and other concepts. For this reason, no restrictions on cyclic <referenceArc> networks are prescribed.

The reference elements that participate in a relationship described by a <referenceArc> element MUST be [XLINK] local resources except when the use attribute on the referenceArc is "prohibited", in which case the reference elements MAY be [XLINK] local resources and/or [XLINK] remote resources.

5.2.4 The <presentationLink> element

The <presentationLink> element is an Extended Link. Its generic syntax is documented in Section 3.5.3. It is intended to describe presentational relationships between Concepts in taxonomies. The <presentationLink> element MUST NOT contain [XLINK] resources.

The XML Schema constraints on the <presentationLink> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="presentationLink" substitutionGroup="xl:extended">
<annotation>
<documentation>
presentation extended link element definition.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:extendedType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:loc"/>
<element ref="link:presentationArc"/>
</choice>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

5.2.4.1 Locators in <presentationLink> elements

<presentationLink> elements MUST NOT contain Locators that are not <loc> elements. <loc> elements are documented in detail in Section 3.5.3.7. The <loc> element, when used in a <presentationLink> , MUST only point to Concepts in Taxonomy Schemas.

5.2.4.2 The <presentationArc> element

The <presentationArc> element is an [XLINK] arc. Its generic syntax is defined in Section 3.5.3.9. The <presentationArc> element defines how Concepts relate to one another for presentation.

The XML Schema constraints on the syntax for <presentationArc> elements are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="presentationArc" substitutionGroup="xl:arc">
<complexType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
Extension of the extended link arc type for presentation arcs. Adds a preferredLabel attribute that documents the role attribute value of preferred labels (as they occur in label extended links).
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<extension base="xl:arcType">
<attribute name="preferredLabel" use="optional">
<simpleType>
<restriction base="anyURI">
<minLength value="1"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

Example 50: A presentation arc

<presentationArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="ci_currentAssets" xlink:to="ci_prepaidExpenses" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/parent-child" order="4"/>

Meaning: Current assets must be presented as the parent of prepaid expenses. The prepaid expense element appears after any children of current assets whose @order is less than 4, and appears before any children of current assets whose @order is more than 4.

A taxonomy MAY define Abstract Elements (Table 1) and create presentation relationships to and/or from them, to allow taxonomy presentation applications to present groups of Concepts, even when those Concepts are not related in any other way such as by calculation associations. Abstract elements SHOULD be in the substitution group for the abstract XBRL <item> element (see Section 4.6).

Example 51: An abstract concept definition

<element name="balanceSheet" id="ci_balanceSheet" type="xbrli:stringItemType" substitutionGroup="xbrli:item" abstract="true" xbrli:periodType="instant"/>

Meaning: The balanceSheet element exists in the taxonomy only to organise other elements; it MUST NOT appear in an XBRL Instance. It has the arbitrary type attribute of xbrli:stringItemType to satisfy the requirements of Section 4.6 and the arbitrary @periodType attribute xbrli:periodType="instant" to satisfy the requirements of Section 5.1.1.1. These arbitrary attributes add no semantic information.

One standard arc role value is defined for <presentationArc> elements. Its value is:

http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/parent-child

Such arcs are referred to as "parent-child" arcs. Parent-child arcs represent relationships between parent Concepts and child concepts and indicate that, in a hierarchical view of XBRL information, it is appropriate to show the child concept as a child of the parent concept. Parent-child arcs MUST represent relationships only between concepts (which, by definition, are in the <tuple> or <item> substitution groups).

Because a network of parent-child arcs represents a hierarchy of Concepts, it makes no sense for such a network to document that a concept is its own descendant. For this reason, directed cycles are not allowed in networks of parent-child relationships. Fully conformant XBRL processors MUST detect and signal directed cycles in networks of parent-child relationships.

5.2.4.2.1 The @preferredLabel attribute (optional)

The @preferredLabel attribute is a URI that MAY be supplied on a parent-child arc to indicate the most appropriate kind of label to use when presenting the arc's child Concept. If supplied, the value of the @preferredLabel attribute MUST be equal to an @xlink:role attribute value on a <label> resource (in a <labelLink> extended link) that is the target of a concept-label arc from the <presentationArc> element's child concept.

XBRL processors MAY use the value of the @preferredLabel attribute to choose between different labels that have been associated with the one Concept. This can be particularly useful when a given concept is used in a variety of ways within a DTS. For example, cash can be used in the balance sheet and as the starting and ending balances in a cash flow statement. Each appearance of the concept in a set of presentation links MAY use this feature to indicate a different preferred label.

The @xlink:role attribute value on the label Extended Link containing the preferred label and the @xlink:role attribute value on the presentation extended link containing the <presentationArc> element do not have to be equal.

5.2.5 The <calculationLink> element

The <calculationLink> element is an Extended Link. Its generic syntax is documented in Section 3.5.3. It describes calculation relationships between Concepts in taxonomies. The <calculationLink> element MUST NOT contain [XLINK] resources.

The XML Schema constraints on the <calculationLink> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="calculationLink" substitutionGroup="xl:extended">
<annotation>
<documentation>
calculation extended link element definition
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:extendedType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:loc"/>
<element ref="link:calculationArc"/>
</choice>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

5.2.5.1 Locators in <calculationLink> elements

<calculationLink> elements MUST NOT contain Locators that are not <loc> elements. <loc> elements are documented in detail in Section 3.5.3.7. The <loc> element, when used in a <calculationLink> , MUST only point to Concepts in Taxonomy Schemas.

5.2.5.2 The <calculationArc> element

The <calculationArc> element is an [XLINK] arc. Its generic syntax is defined in Section 3.5.3.9. The <calculationArc> element defines how Concepts relate to one another for calculation purposes.

The XML Schema constraints on the syntax for <calculationArc> elements are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="calculationArc" substitutionGroup="xl:arc">
<complexType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
Extension of the extended link arc type for calculation arcs. Adds a weight attribute to track weights on contributions to summations.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<extension base="xl:arcType">
<attribute name="weight" type="decimal" use="required"/>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

One standard arc role value is defined for <calculationArc> elements. Its value is:

http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/summation-item

Such arcs are referred to as "summation-item" arcs. Summation-item arcs MUST represent relationships only between Concepts that are in the <item> substitution group and whose type is numeric (see Section 5.1.1.3). They represent aggregation relationships between concepts and are referred to as "summation-item" relationships. Each of these relationships is between one concept, referred to as the summation concept, and another concept, referred to as the contributing concept.

A complete summation-item arc set for a given summation concept is defined in the context of the DTS supporting an XBRL instance. It is the set of all summation-item arcs, defined in <calculationLink>  Extended Links with the same @xlink:role attribute value that associate contributing concepts to the given summation concept. A summation item is an occurrence of a summation concept in an XBRL Instance.

For a given Extended Link role R and summation item S, another item I is a contributing item if all of the following conditions are satisfied:

  1. I is an occurrence of a contributing concept for S in R.
  2. I is C-Equal and U-Equal to S.
  3. I is a descendant of the parent of S (i.e. I is a sibling of S or a descendant of one of the siblings of S).
  4. I is not nil-valued (i.e. it does not have an xsi:nil attribute with value true).

A calculation represented by a "summation-item" relationship binds for a summation item S if and only if:

  1. S has at least one contributing item.
  2. S is not a Duplicate Item (as defined in Section 4.10), and
  3. None of the contributing items are duplicates.
  4. S is not nil-valued (i.e. it does not have an xsi:nil attribute with value true).

NOTE: Calculation checks work exclusively on the information that is explicitly provided in the instance; items and values that can be inferred through essence-alias relationships are not considered. Several items (all corresponding to the one Concept) can bind to a summation item if they are not duplicates because they are not P-Equal. This is relevant in the context of calculation scoping through tuples (see Section 5.2.5.2.2) and means that detection of duplicates is not a sufficient test for double counting problems in XBRL Instances.

The total of a binding calculation is defined to be the sum of the rounded values of the contributing Numeric Items in the binding, each multiplied by the value of the @weight attribute on the item's associated <calculationArc> . This multiplication takes place after any necessary rounding is performed. The rounded value of a numeric item is the result of rounding the value of the numeric item to its decimals or inferred decimals (see Section 4.6.6). A binding calculation is defined to be consistent if the rounded value of the summation item is equal to the total rounded to the decimals or inferred decimals of the summation item. (If any item of the calculation has a precision attribute value 0 then the binding calculation is deemed to be inconsistent.)

An XBRL Instance is consistent with the semantics of the calculation Linkbases in its supporting DTS if all binding calculations for the XBRL instance are consistent.

Fully conformant XBRL processors MUST detect and signal inconsistencies, as defined above, between an XBRL Instance and the summation-item arcs of calculation Linkbases in its supporting DTS.

Example 52: Calculations involving decimals and precision

Suppose that the Numeric Item a is a summation for numeric items b and c (with @weight 1.0) and there exists a context with @id 'c1' and unit with @id 'u1' in the instance so that the summation binds. To perform the calculation, first round 984.8 to precision 3 to give 985 and then round 582.334973 to the inferred precision 4 to give 582.3 resulting in a total of 1567.3. The total is then equal to the summation item after rounding to precision 2 (the precision of the summation item a) at 1600, so that this calculation is consistent.

<a contextRef="c1" unitRef="u1" precision="2">1559</a>
<b contextRef="c1" unitRef="u1" precision="3">984.8</b>
<c contextRef="c1" unitRef="u1" decimals="1">582.334973</c>

This calculation is not consistent since the total at precision 2 is, again, 1600 but the summation item to precision 2 has value 1500.

<a contextRef="c1" unitRef="u1" precision="2">1527</a>
<b contextRef="c1" unitRef="u1" precision="3">984.8</b>
<c contextRef="c1" unitRef="u1" decimals="1">582.334973</c>

Example 53: Syntax of a calculationArc

<calculationArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/summation-item" xlink:from="currentAssets" xlink:to="prepaidExpenses" weight="1.0" order="1"/>

A DTS might include a single Concept viewed from different perspectives or as having several different dimensions. In the example below, the cash concept can be broken down by branch location, by account type, and by availability.

Example 54: Cash, equivalent to cash as totalled by branch location and account type

Cash

  • Cash by Branch Location
    • Cash in Domestic Branches
    • Cash in Foreign Branches
  • Cash by Account Type
    • Cash in Interest Bearing Accounts
    • Cash in Non-interest Bearing Accounts
  • Cash by Availability
    • Cash on Hand
    • Cash as Balances Due

Cash in domestic branches and cash in foreign branches adds to cash. Cash in interest bearing accounts and cash in non-interest bearing accounts also adds to cash. Cash on hand and cash as balances due also adds to cash. To ensure that the calculation relationships between all of these disaggregate cash Concepts and the cash concept itself do not cause double or triple counting, the three pairs of summation-item arcs SHOULD be grouped into Extended Links with different extended link role values.

Thus, the summation-item arcs from cash to cash in domestic branches and to cash in foreign branches could be defined in Extended Links with the extended link role value:

http://www.mytaxonomy.com/calcLinks/cashByBranchLocation

Likewise, the summation-item arcs from cash to cash in interest bearing accounts and cash in non-interest bearing accounts could be defined in Extended Links with the extended link role value:

http://www.mytaxonomy.com/calcLinks/cashByAccountType

Finally, the summation-item arcs from cash to cash on hand and cash as balances due could be defined in extended links with the extended link role value:

http://www.mytaxonomy.com/calcLinks/cashByAvailability

The different extended link role values avoid double or triple counting in this example by ensuring that the pairs of summation-item arcs are not all processed together.

5.2.5.2.1 The @weight attribute

The @weight attribute MUST appear on <calculationArc> elements. The @weight attribute MUST have a non-zero decimal value. For summation-item arcs, the @weight attribute indicates the multiplier to be applied to an item value when accumulating numeric values from item elements to summation elements. A value of "1.0" means that 1.0 times the numeric value of the item is applied to the parent item. A weight of "-1.0" means that 1.0 times the numeric value is subtracted from the summation item.

5.2.5.2.2 Calculation scoping

A summation-item <calculationArc> applies when the taxonomy Concepts that are located by the "from" and "to" attributes of a summation-item calculation arc identify C-Equal and U-Equal items (i.e. they are within equivalent contexts and Units in an XBRL Instance). However, calculations also take into account tuple structure in the XBRL instance. The "from" item MUST be a child of the Least Common Ancestor of both the "from" and "to" items for the calculation relationships to bind. A consequence of this scoping is that items inside Duplicate Tuples cannot participate together in calculations.

Example 55: XBRL instance fragment with nested tuples

There are three calculation arcs in the <calculationLink> :

from (summation) net to (item) gross, weight = 1.0

from (summation) net to (item) returns, weight = -1.0

from (summation) totalGross to (item) gross, weight = 1.0

The following is a fragment of an XBRL instance. Note that all Numeric Items share a single context c1.

<analysis>
<customer>
<name contextRef="c1">Acme</name>
<gross precision="4" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">3000</gross>
<returns precision="3" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">100</returns>
<net precision="4" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">2900</net>
</customer>
<customer>
<name contextRef="c1">Bree</name>
<gross precision="4" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">2000</gross>
<returns precision="3" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">200</returns>
<net precision="4" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">1800</net>
</customer>
<totalGross precision="4" unitRef="u1" contextRef="c1">5000</totalGross>
</analysis>

calculation item ("to") path calculation summation ("from") path Match? Reason
analysis/customer[1]/gross analysis/customer[1]/net Yes They are siblings.
analysis/customer[2]/gross analysis/customer[2]/net Yes They are siblings.
analysis/customer[1]/returns analysis/customer[1]/net Yes They are siblings.
analysis/customer[2]/gross analysis/customer[2]/net Yes They are siblings.
analysis/customer[1]/gross analysis/customer[2]/net No The "to" summation is not a sibling or uncle of the item.
analysis/customer[2]/gross analysis/customer[1]/net No The "to" summation is not a sibling or uncle of the item.
analysis/customer[1]/gross analysis/totalGross Yes totalGross is an uncle of the item under ancestor analysis.
analysis/customer[2]/gross analysis/totalGross Yes totalGross is an uncle of the item under ancestor analysis.

5.2.6 The <definitionLink> element

The <definitionLink> element is an extended link. Its generic syntax is documented in Section 3.5.3. It is intended to contain a variety of miscellaneous relationships between Concepts in taxonomies. The <definitionLink> element MUST NOT contain [XLINK] resources.

The XML Schema constraints on the <definitionLink> element are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="definitionLink" substitutionGroup="xl:extended">
<annotation>
<documentation>
definition extended link element definition
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:extendedType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:loc"/>
<element ref="link:definitionArc"/>
</choice>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

5.2.6.1 Locators in <definitionLink> elements

<definitionLink> elements MUST NOT contain Locators that are not <loc> elements. <loc> elements are documented in detail in Section 3.5.3.7. The <loc> element, when used in a <definitionLink> , MUST only point to Concepts in Taxonomy Schemas.

5.2.6.2 The <definitionArc> element

The <definitionArc> element is an [XLINK] arc. Its generic syntax is defined in Section 3.5.3.9. The <definitionArc> elements define various kinds of relationships between Concepts.

The XML Schema constraints on the syntax for <definitionArc> elements are shown below.

<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<element name="definitionArc" type="xl:arcType" substitutionGroup="xl:arc">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Concrete arc for use in definition extended links.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>

Four standard arc role values are defined for <definitionArc> elements.

5.2.6.2.1 "general-special" arcs

The first standard arc role value for <definitionArc> elements is:

http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/general-special

Such arcs are referred to as "general-special" arcs. <definitionArc> elements with this arc role value MUST represent relationships only between Concepts that are in the <item> substitution group.

General-special arcs connect from a generalisation concept Locator to a specialisation concept locator. A generalisation item is an occurrence of a generalisation concept in an XBRL instance. A specialisation item is an occurrence of a specialisation concept in an XBRL Instance. A valid value for a specialisation item is a valid value of its generalisation item (if both items are C-Equal and U-Equal). However, a valid value for a generalisation item is not necessarily a valid value for its specialisation item, even if they are C-Equal and U-Equal.

Only undirected cycles are allowed in networks of general-special arcs. Fully conformant XBRL processors MUST detect and signal directed cycles in networks of general-special arcs.

Example 56: A general-special arc

<definitionArc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="postalCode" xlink:to="zipCode" xlink:arcrole="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/general-special" order="1"/>

Meaning: postalCode is a generalisation of zipCode. The @order attribute indicates that when this link is displayed to a user, it appears after links with order less than 1, and before links with order greater than 1.

5.2.6.2.2 "essence-alias" arcs

The second standard arc role value for <definitionArc> elements is:

http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/essence-alias

Such arcs are referred to as "essence-alias" arcs. <definitionArc> elements with this arc role value MUST represent relationships only between Concepts that are in the <item> substitution group.

This arc role value is for use on a <definitionArc> from an Essence Concept Locator to an Alias Concept Locator.

Only undirected cycles are allowed in networks of essence-alias arcs. Fully conformant XBRL processors MUST detect any directed cycles in networks of essence-alias arcs.

It is often the case that particular Concepts have been defined more than once in a single taxonomy or in a set of taxonomies. It is appropriate, in such cases, for taxonomy authors to have a single "canonical best element" or "essence" for one of the concepts and to associate it with the other "alias" concepts using the essence-alias definition arc to indicate to XBRL validating processors and other XBRL Instance consuming applications that the items MUST be consistent as defined below.

An essence-alias arc denotes a relationship between two Concepts, from the essence (basic, primary) concept, to the other alias (alternative name) concept.

For definitions of "Alias Concept" "Alias Item" "Essence Concept" and "Essence Item" refer to Table 1. For any set of essence-alias arcs that have the same essence concept the term "alias concept set" means the set of alias concepts associated with the set of arcs and the term "alias item set" means a corresponding set of items in an S-Equal or identical context in an XBRL Instance. The following conditions apply to definition arcs that are not prohibited (see Section 3.5.3.9.5 for details on prohibited arcs) in any extension taxonomy having this arc role, to the alias concepts and essence concepts of such arcs, and to their corresponding alias items and essence items.

  1. An Alias Concept MAY be the Essence Concept of any number of other alias concepts.
  2. Both the Alias Concept and Essence Concept of an arc MUST have the same item type and the same value for the @periodType attribute. Also, if the @balance attribute is present on both the alias concept and essence concept of an arc, it MUST have the same value for both Concepts. There is no similar requirement if the @balance attribute is absent from either or both of the concepts
  3. If an Alias Item and an Essence Item in an XBRL instance that are C-Equal and P-Equal are not V-Equal or are not U-Equal in those respective S-Equal contexts, then the two items are not consistent with the semantics of the definition links in the DTS supporting the XBRL Instance. This requirement only applies if both items do not have nil values. Only fully conformant XBRL processors MUST detect such inconsistencies.
  4. For any non-numeric Essence Concept E, for which there is no corresponding Essence Item EI having parent P for an XBRL Instance context C, an XBRL processor MAY infer the existence of such an item EI having a value that is V-Equal to the values of all of the (non nil valued) members of the alias item set S corresponding to all essence-alias arcs with E as their essence concept having parent P if S is not the empty set. If all (non nil valued) members of S are not V-Equal, then the XBRL instance is not consistent with the definition link semantics expressed in its DTS and fully conformant XBRL processors MUST detect and signal such inconsistencies. If an application applies this rule and any member M of S does not have a value supplied or has a nil value, but is an essence item in some set of essence-alias arcs, this rule MUST be applied recursively to infer the value of M before inferring the value of E.

    Example 57: Inference of values for non-numeric items with concepts connected by essence-alias arcs

    In an XBRL Instance there is a context c1. The concepts D and E are string item types connected by an essence-alias <definitionArc> , with E being the Essence Concept and D being the Alias Concept. E has the value "Bert" in context c1 while D has the value "Ernie" in context c1. These values are inconsistent with the <definitionArc> semantics that have been expressed.

  5. For any numeric Essence Concept E, for which there is no corresponding Essence Item EI having parent P for an XBRL Instance context C, an XBRL processor MAY infer the existence of such an item EI having a value that is V-Equal to the values of all of the members of the (non nil valued) alias item set S corresponding to all essence-alias arcs with E as their essence concept having parent P if S is not the empty set, at the greatest values of @precision and @decimals for which this is possible (see 4.6.3 above). If all (non nil valued) members of S are not V-Equal, then the XBRL instance is not consistent with the definition link semantics expressed in its DTS and fully conformant XBRL processors MUST detect such inconsistencies. If an application applies this rule and any member M of S does not have a value supplied or has a nil value, but is an essence item in some set of essence-alias arcs, this rule MUST be applied recursively to infer the value of M before inferring the value of E.

XBRL processors are not required to infer the values of Alias Items from the values of Essence Items and this specification provides no rules for so doing.

Example 58: Inference of values for numeric items with concepts connected by essence-alias arcs

Case 1

The concepts A, B and C are connected by essence-alias arcs, with A being the essence and B and C being aliases. In an XBRL Instance, B has the value 110 with precision=2 and C has the value 99 with precision=2. A, B and C are C-Equal.

The values of B and C are inconsistent at their specified precision of 2. As a result, no inference can be made for A.

Case 2

The concepts A, B and C are connected by essence-alias arcs, with A being the essence and B and C being aliases. In an XBRL Instance, B has the value 110 with precision=1 and C has the value 99 with precision=1. A, B and C are C-Equal.

Rounding B to precision=1 gives the result 100

Rounding C to precision=1 gives the result 100

Since these two values are the same, a value of 100 at precision=1 can be inferred for A.

5.2.6.2.3 "similar-tuples" arcs

The third standard arc role value for <definitionArc> elements is:

http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/similar-tuples

Such arcs are referred to as "similar-tuples" arcs. <definitionArc> elements with this arc role value MUST represent relationships only between Concepts that are in the <tuple> substitution group.

The similar-tuples arcs represent relationships between tuple Concepts that have equivalent definitions (as provided in the labels and references for those tuples) even when they have different XML content models.

For example, this kind of relationship would be appropriate to use between two different tuple Concepts that are both designed to describe mailing addresses.

The semantics of similar-tuples arcs are symmetric. It does not matter which tuple the arc goes from and which tuple the arc goes to.

Any cycles can be semantically sensible in networks of <definitionArc> elements with the http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/similar-tuples arc role value because the relationship between Concepts being described by these relationships is symmetric.

5.2.6.2.4 "requires-element" arcs

The fourth standard arc role value for <definitionArc> elements is:

http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/requires-element

Such arcs are referred to as "requires-element" arcs. <definitionArc> elements with this arc role value MUST represent relationships only between Concepts (which, by definition, are in the <tuple> or <item> substitution groups).

If an instance of the Concept at the source of the arc occurs in an XBRL Instance then an instance of the arc's target concept MUST also occur in the XBRL instance. No requirements are placed on c-equality or u-equality of these concept instances when testing this requirement. Likewise, this requirement does not impose requirements on relative locations of the concept instances in tuples. Fully conformant XBRL processors MUST detect and signal instances in which this relationship is violated.

For example, the data that is normally entered into a paper form could be represented electronically using XBRL instances. To represent the "required field" idea, the taxonomy author can create a <definitionArc> with the http://www.xbrl.org/2003/arcrole/requires-element arc role value. This arc would link the Concepts representing the required fields and an element representing the concept of the form itself.

Cycles are allowed in networks of requires-element arcs.

6 References

ELEMENT-SCHEME
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium). "XPointer element() Scheme"
Paul Grosso
, Eve Maler, Jonathan Marsh, and Norman Walsh.
(See http://www.w3.org/TR/xptr-element/)
IEEE
IEEE. "IEEE Standard for Floating Point Arithmetic, IEEE Std 754™-2008"
(See http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/mostRecentIssue.jsp?punumber=4610933)
IETF RFC 2119
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). "RFC 2119: Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels"
Scott Bradner.

(See http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt)
ISO
International Standards Organisation. " ISO 4217 Currency codes, ISO 639 Language codes, ISO 3166 Country codes, ISO 8601 international standard numeric date and time representations. "
(See http://www.iso.ch/)
SGML
International Standards Organisation. "Information Processing - Text and office systems - Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)"
(See http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/CatalogueDetailPage.CatalogueDetail?CSNUMBER=16387)
XBRL 2.1
XBRL International Inc.. "Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) 2.1 Includes Corrected Errata Up To 2012-01-25"
Phillip Engel
, Walter Hamscher, Geoff Shuetrim, David vun Kannon, and Hugh Wallis.
(See http://www.xbrl.org/specification/xbrl-recommendation-2003-12-31+corrected-errata-2012-01-25.htm)
XLINK
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium). "XML Linking Language (XLink) Version 1.0"
Steve DeRose
, Eve Maler, and David Orchard.
(See http://www.w3.org/TR/xlink/)
XML
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium). "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition)"
Tim Bray
, Jean Paoli, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, Eve Maler, and François Yergeau.
(See http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/)
XML Base
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium). "XML Base"
Johnathan Marsh.

(See http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlbase/)
XML Names
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium). "Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Third Edition)"
(See http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names/REC-xml-names-20091208)
XML Schema Datatypes
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium). "XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition"
Paul V. Biron
, and Ashok Malhotra.
(See http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/)
XML Schema Structures
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium). "XML Schema Part 1: Structures Second Edition"
Henry S. Thompson
, David Beech, Murray Maloney, and Noah Mendelsohn.
(See http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-1/REC-xmlschema-1-20041028/)
XPOINTER
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium). "XPointer Framework"
Paul Grosso
, Eve Maler, Jonathan Marsh, and Norman Walsh.
(See http://www.w3.org/TR/xptr-framework/)
XPath 1.0
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium). "XML Path Language (XPath) 1.0"
James Clark
, and Steve DeRose.
(See http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath/)

Appendix A Schemas

The following are the versions of the XML schemas provided as part of this specification. These are all normative. Non-normative versions (which should be identical to these except for appropriate comments indicating their non-normative status) are also provided as separate files for convenience of users of the specification.

NOTE: (non-normative) Following the schema maintenance policy of XBRL International, it is the intent (but is not guaranteed) that the location of non-normative versions of these schemas on the web will be as follows:

  1. While any schema is the most current RECOMMENDED version and until it is superseded by any additional errata corrections a non-normative version will reside on the web in the directory http://www.xbrl.org/2003/
  2. A non-normative version of each schema as corrected by this update to the RECOMMENDATION will be archived in perpetuity on the web in the directory http://www.xbrl.org/2003/2006-12-18/

In order to allow validation of linkbase documents, the XBRL linkbase namespace (http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase) MUST be used with the schema that implements the [XLINK] specification. This schema defines the namespace http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink is not an official document of the W3C. It is the intention of XBRL International to integrate with the official schemas for [XLINK] should they become available.

A.1 xbrl-instance-2003-12-31.xsd (normative)

<!-- (c) XBRL International. See www.xbrl.org/legal -->
<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/instance" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Taxonomy schema for XBRL. This schema defines syntax relating to XBRL instances.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<import namespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" schemaLocation="xbrl-linkbase-2003-12-31.xsd"/>
<annotation>
<documentation>
Define the attributes to be used on XBRL concept definitions
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attribute name="periodType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The periodType attribute (restricting the period for XBRL items)
</documentation>
</annotation>
<simpleType>
<restriction base="token">
<enumeration value="instant"/>
<enumeration value="duration"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
<attribute name="balance">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The balance attribute (imposes calculation relationship restrictions)
</documentation>
</annotation>
<simpleType>
<restriction base="token">
<enumeration value="debit"/>
<enumeration value="credit"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
<annotation>
<documentation>
Define the simple types used as a base for for item types
</documentation>
</annotation>
<simpleType name="monetary">
<annotation>
<documentation>
the monetary type serves as the datatype for those financial concepts in a taxonomy which denote units in a currency. Instance items with this type must have a unit of measure from the ISO 4217 namespace of currencies.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="decimal"/>
</simpleType>
<simpleType name="shares">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This datatype serves as the datatype for share based financial concepts.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="decimal"/>
</simpleType>
<simpleType name="pure">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This datatype serves as the type for dimensionless numbers such as percentage change, growth rates, and other ratios where the numerator and denominator have the same units.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="decimal"/>
</simpleType>
<simpleType name="nonZeroDecimal">
<annotation>
<documentation>
As the name implies this is a decimal value that can not take the value 0 - it is used as the type for the denominator of a fractionItemType.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<union>
<simpleType>
<restriction base="decimal">
<minExclusive value="0"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
<simpleType>
<restriction base="decimal">
<maxExclusive value="0"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</union>
</simpleType>
<simpleType name="precisionType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This type is used to specify the value of the precision attribute on numeric items. It consists of the union of nonNegativeInteger and "INF" (used to signify infinite precision or "exact value").
</documentation>
</annotation>
<union memberTypes="nonNegativeInteger">
<simpleType>
<restriction base="string">
<enumeration value="INF"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</union>
</simpleType>
<simpleType name="decimalsType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This type is used to specify the value of the decimals attribute on numeric items. It consists of the union of integer and "INF" (used to signify that a number is expressed to an infinite number of decimal places or "exact value").
</documentation>
</annotation>
<union memberTypes="integer">
<simpleType>
<restriction base="string">
<enumeration value="INF"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</union>
</simpleType>
<attributeGroup name="factAttrs">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Attributes for all items and tuples.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="optional"/>
<anyAttribute namespace="##other" processContents="lax"/>
</attributeGroup>
<attributeGroup name="tupleAttrs">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Group of attributes for tuples.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:factAttrs"/>
</attributeGroup>
<attributeGroup name="itemAttrs">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Attributes for all items.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:factAttrs"/>
<attribute name="contextRef" type="IDREF" use="required"/>
</attributeGroup>
<attributeGroup name="essentialNumericItemAttrs">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Attributes for all numeric items (fractional and non-fractional).
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:itemAttrs"/>
<attribute name="unitRef" type="IDREF" use="required"/>
</attributeGroup>
<attributeGroup name="numericItemAttrs">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Group of attributes for non-fractional numeric items
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:essentialNumericItemAttrs"/>
<attribute name="precision" type="xbrli:precisionType" use="optional"/>
<attribute name="decimals" type="xbrli:decimalsType" use="optional"/>
</attributeGroup>
<attributeGroup name="nonNumericItemAttrs">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Group of attributes for non-numeric items
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:itemAttrs"/>
</attributeGroup>
<annotation>
<documentation>
General numeric item types - for use on concept element definitions The following 3 numeric types are all based on the built-in data types of XML Schema.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType name="decimalItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="decimal">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="floatItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="float">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="doubleItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="double">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
XBRL domain numeric item types - for use on concept element definitions The following 4 numeric types are all types that have been identified as having particular relevance to the domain space addressed by XBRL and are hence included in addition to the built-in types from XML Schema.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType name="monetaryItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="xbrli:monetary">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="sharesItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="xbrli:shares">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="pureItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="xbrli:pure">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<element name="numerator" type="decimal"/>
<element name="denominator" type="xbrli:nonZeroDecimal"/>
<complexType name="fractionItemType" final="extension">
<sequence>
<element ref="xbrli:numerator"/>
<element ref="xbrli:denominator"/>
</sequence>
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:essentialNumericItemAttrs"/>
</complexType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
The following 13 numeric types are all based on the XML Schema built-in types that are derived by restriction from decimal.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType name="integerItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="integer">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="nonPositiveIntegerItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="nonPositiveInteger">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="negativeIntegerItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="negativeInteger">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="longItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="long">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="intItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="int">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="shortItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="short">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="byteItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="byte">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="nonNegativeIntegerItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="nonNegativeInteger">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="unsignedLongItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="unsignedLong">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="unsignedIntItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="unsignedInt">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="unsignedShortItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="unsignedShort">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="unsignedByteItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="unsignedByte">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="positiveIntegerItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="positiveInteger">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:numericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
The following 17 non-numeric types are all based on the primitive built-in data types of XML Schema.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType name="stringItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="string">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="booleanItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="boolean">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="hexBinaryItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="hexBinary">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="base64BinaryItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="base64Binary">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="anyURIItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="anyURI">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="QNameItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="QName">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="durationItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="duration">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="dateTimeItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="xbrli:dateUnion">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="timeItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="time">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="dateItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="date">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="gYearMonthItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="gYearMonth">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="gYearItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="gYear">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="gMonthDayItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="gMonthDay">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="gDayItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="gDay">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="gMonthItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="gMonth">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
The following 5 non-numeric types are all based on the XML Schema built-in types that are derived by restriction and/or list from string.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType name="normalizedStringItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="normalizedString">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="tokenItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="token">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="languageItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="language">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="NameItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="Name">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<complexType name="NCNameItemType" final="extension">
<simpleContent>
<extension base="NCName">
<attributeGroup ref="xbrli:nonNumericItemAttrs"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
XML Schema components contributing to the context element
</documentation>
</annotation>
<element name="segment">
<complexType>
<sequence>
<any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
</complexType>
</element>
<complexType name="contextEntityType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The type for the entity element, used to describe the reporting entity. Note that the scheme attribute is required and cannot be empty.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<sequence>
<element name="identifier">
<complexType>
<simpleContent>
<extension base="token">
<attribute name="scheme" use="required">
<simpleType>
<restriction base="anyURI">
<minLength value="1"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element ref="xbrli:segment" minOccurs="0"/>
</sequence>
</complexType>
<simpleType name="dateUnion">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The union of the date and dateTime simple types.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<union memberTypes="date dateTime"/>
</simpleType>
<complexType name="contextPeriodType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The type for the period element, used to describe the reporting date info.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<choice>
<sequence>
<element name="startDate" type="xbrli:dateUnion"/>
<element name="endDate" type="xbrli:dateUnion"/>
</sequence>
<element name="instant" type="xbrli:dateUnion"/>
<element name="forever">
<complexType/>
</element>
</choice>
</complexType>
<complexType name="contextScenarioType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Used for the scenario under which fact have been reported.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<sequence>
<any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
</complexType>
<element name="context">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Used for an island of context to which facts can be related.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<sequence>
<element name="entity" type="xbrli:contextEntityType"/>
<element name="period" type="xbrli:contextPeriodType"/>
<element name="scenario" type="xbrli:contextScenarioType" minOccurs="0"/>
</sequence>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="required"/>
</complexType>
</element>
<annotation>
<documentation>
XML Schema components contributing to the unit element
</documentation>
</annotation>
<element name="measure" type="QName"/>
<complexType name="measuresType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
A collection of sibling measure elements
</documentation>
</annotation>
<sequence>
<element ref="xbrli:measure" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
</complexType>
<element name="divide">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Element used to represent division in units
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<sequence>
<element name="unitNumerator" type="xbrli:measuresType"/>
<element name="unitDenominator" type="xbrli:measuresType"/>
</sequence>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="unit">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Element used to represent units information about numeric items
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<choice>
<element ref="xbrli:measure" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<element ref="xbrli:divide"/>
</choice>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="required"/>
</complexType>
</element>
<annotation>
<documentation>
Elements to use for facts in instances
</documentation>
</annotation>
<element name="item" type="anyType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract item element used as head of item substitution group
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="tuple" type="anyType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract tuple element used as head of tuple substitution group
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="xbrl">
<annotation>
<documentation>
XBRL instance root element.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<sequence>
<element ref="link:schemaRef" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<element ref="link:linkbaseRef" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<element ref="link:roleRef" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<element ref="link:arcroleRef" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xbrli:item"/>
<element ref="xbrli:tuple"/>
<element ref="xbrli:context"/>
<element ref="xbrli:unit"/>
<element ref="link:footnoteLink"/>
</choice>
</sequence>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="optional"/>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

A.2 xbrl-linkbase-2003-12-31.xsd (normative)

<!-- (c) XBRL International. See www.xbrl.org/legal -->
<schema
  xmlns:link
="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase"

  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/linkbase" elementFormDefault="qualified">
<annotation>
<documentation>
XBRL simple and extended link schema constructs
</documentation>
</annotation>
<import namespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink" schemaLocation="xl-2003-12-31.xsd"/>
<import namespace="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" schemaLocation="xlink-2003-12-31.xsd"/>
<element name="documentation" type="xl:documentationType" substitutionGroup="xl:documentation">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Concrete element to use for documentation of extended links and linkbases.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="loc" type="xl:locatorType" substitutionGroup="xl:locator">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Concrete locator element. The loc element is the XLink locator element for all extended links in XBRL.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="labelArc" type="xl:arcType" substitutionGroup="xl:arc">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Concrete arc for use in label extended links.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="referenceArc" type="xl:arcType" substitutionGroup="xl:arc">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Concrete arc for use in reference extended links.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="definitionArc" type="xl:arcType" substitutionGroup="xl:arc">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Concrete arc for use in definition extended links.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="presentationArc" substitutionGroup="xl:arc">
<complexType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
Extension of the extended link arc type for presentation arcs. Adds a preferredLabel attribute that documents the role attribute value of preferred labels (as they occur in label extended links).
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<extension base="xl:arcType">
<attribute name="preferredLabel" use="optional">
<simpleType>
<restriction base="anyURI">
<minLength value="1"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="calculationArc" substitutionGroup="xl:arc">
<complexType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
Extension of the extended link arc type for calculation arcs. Adds a weight attribute to track weights on contributions to summations.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<extension base="xl:arcType">
<attribute name="weight" type="decimal" use="required"/>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="footnoteArc" type="xl:arcType" substitutionGroup="xl:arc">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Concrete arc for use in footnote extended links.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="label" substitutionGroup="xl:resource">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the label resource element.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType mixed="true">
<complexContent mixed="true">
<extension base="xl:resourceType">
<sequence>
<any namespace="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" processContents="skip" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="part" type="anySimpleType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the reference part element - for use in reference resources.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="reference" substitutionGroup="xl:resource">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the reference resource element.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType mixed="true">
<complexContent mixed="true">
<extension base="xl:resourceType">
<sequence>
<element ref="link:part" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="footnote" substitutionGroup="xl:resource">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the reference resource element
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType mixed="true">
<complexContent mixed="true">
<extension base="xl:resourceType">
<sequence>
<any namespace="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" processContents="skip" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="presentationLink" substitutionGroup="xl:extended">
<annotation>
<documentation>
presentation extended link element definition.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:extendedType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:loc"/>
<element ref="link:presentationArc"/>
</choice>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="definitionLink" substitutionGroup="xl:extended">
<annotation>
<documentation>
definition extended link element definition
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:extendedType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:loc"/>
<element ref="link:definitionArc"/>
</choice>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="calculationLink" substitutionGroup="xl:extended">
<annotation>
<documentation>
calculation extended link element definition
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:extendedType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:loc"/>
<element ref="link:calculationArc"/>
</choice>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="labelLink" substitutionGroup="xl:extended">
<annotation>
<documentation>
label extended link element definition
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:extendedType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:loc"/>
<element ref="link:labelArc"/>
<element ref="link:label"/>
</choice>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="referenceLink" substitutionGroup="xl:extended">
<annotation>
<documentation>
reference extended link element definition
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:extendedType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:loc"/>
<element ref="link:referenceArc"/>
<element ref="link:reference"/>
</choice>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="footnoteLink" substitutionGroup="xl:extended">
<annotation>
<documentation>
footnote extended link element definition
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:extendedType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:loc"/>
<element ref="link:footnoteArc"/>
<element ref="link:footnote"/>
</choice>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="linkbase">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the linkbase element. Used to contain a set of zero or more extended link elements.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="link:documentation"/>
<element ref="link:roleRef"/>
<element ref="link:arcroleRef"/>
<element ref="xl:extended"/>
</choice>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="optional"/>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="linkbaseRef" substitutionGroup="xl:simple">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the linkbaseRef element - used to link to XBRL taxonomy extended links from taxonomy schema documents and from XBRL instances.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="xl:simpleType">
<attribute ref="xlink:arcrole" use="required">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This attribute must have the value: http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink/properties/linkbase
</documentation>
</annotation>
</attribute>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="schemaRef" type="xl:simpleType" substitutionGroup="xl:simple">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the schemaRef element - used to link to XBRL taxonomy schemas from XBRL instances.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="roleRef" substitutionGroup="xl:simple">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the roleRef element - used to link to resolve xlink:role attribute values to the roleType element declaration.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<extension base="xl:simpleType">
<attribute name="roleURI" type="xl:nonEmptyURI" use="required">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This attribute contains the role name.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</attribute>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="arcroleRef" substitutionGroup="xl:simple">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the roleRef element - used to link to resolve xlink:arcrole attribute values to the arcroleType element declaration.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<complexContent>
<extension base="xl:simpleType">
<attribute name="arcroleURI" type="xl:nonEmptyURI" use="required">
<annotation>
<documentation>
This attribute contains the arc role name.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</attribute>
</extension>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="definition" type="string">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The element to use for human-readable definition of custom roles and arc roles.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="usedOn" type="QName">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Definition of the usedOn element - used to identify what elements may use a taxonomy defined role or arc role value.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<element name="roleType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The roleType element definition - used to define custom role values in XBRL extended links.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<sequence>
<element ref="link:definition" minOccurs="0"/>
<element ref="link:usedOn" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
<attribute name="roleURI" type="xl:nonEmptyURI" use="required"/>
<attribute name="id" type="ID"/>
</complexType>
</element>
<element name="arcroleType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The arcroleType element definition - used to define custom arc role values in XBRL extended links.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<sequence>
<element ref="link:definition" minOccurs="0"/>
<element ref="link:usedOn" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
<attribute name="arcroleURI" type="xl:nonEmptyURI" use="required"/>
<attribute name="id" type="ID"/>
<attribute name="cyclesAllowed" use="required">
<simpleType>
<restriction base="NMTOKEN">
<enumeration value="any"/>
<enumeration value="undirected"/>
<enumeration value="none"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
</complexType>
</element>
</schema>

A.3 xlink-2003-12-31.xsd (normative)

<!-- (c) XBRL International. See www.xbrl.org/legal -->
<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="qualified">
<annotation>
<documentation>
XLink attribute specification
</documentation>
</annotation>
<attribute name="type">
<simpleType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
Enumeration of values for the type attribute
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="string">
<enumeration value="simple"/>
<enumeration value="extended"/>
<enumeration value="locator"/>
<enumeration value="arc"/>
<enumeration value="resource"/>
<enumeration value="title"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
<attribute name="role">
<simpleType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
A URI with a minimum length of 1 character.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="anyURI">
<minLength value="1"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
<attribute name="arcrole">
<simpleType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
A URI with a minimum length of 1 character.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="anyURI">
<minLength value="1"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
<attribute name="title" type="string"/>
<attribute name="show">
<simpleType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
Enumeration of values for the show attribute
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="string">
<enumeration value="new"/>
<enumeration value="replace"/>
<enumeration value="embed"/>
<enumeration value="other"/>
<enumeration value="none"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
<attribute name="actuate">
<simpleType>
<annotation>
<documentation>
Enumeration of values for the actuate attribute
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="string">
<enumeration value="onLoad"/>
<enumeration value="onRequest"/>
<enumeration value="other"/>
<enumeration value="none"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
<attribute name="label" type="NCName"/>
<attribute name="from" type="NCName"/>
<attribute name="to" type="NCName"/>
<attribute name="href" type="anyURI"/>
</schema>

A.4 xl-2003-12-31.xsd (normative)

<!-- (c) XBRL International. See www.xbrl.org/legal -->
<schema
  xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
targetNamespace="http://www.xbrl.org/2003/XLink" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
<import namespace="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" schemaLocation="xlink-2003-12-31.xsd"/>
<simpleType name="nonEmptyURI">
<annotation>
<documentation>
A URI type with a minimum length of 1 character. Used on role and arcrole and href elements.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="anyURI">
<minLength value="1"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
<complexType name="documentationType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Element type to use for documentation of extended links and linkbases.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<simpleContent>
<extension base="string">
<anyAttribute namespace="##other" processContents="lax"/>
</extension>
</simpleContent>
</complexType>
<element name="documentation" type="xl:documentationType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract element to use for documentation of extended links and linkbases.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<annotation>
<documentation>
XBRL simple and extended link schema constructs
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType name="titleType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Type for the abstract title element - used as a title element template.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="anyType">
<attribute ref="xlink:type" use="required" fixed="title"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
<element name="title" type="xl:titleType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Generic title element for use in extended link documentation. Used on extended links, arcs, locators. See http://www.w3.org/TR/xlink/#title-element for details.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<complexType name="locatorType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Generic locator type.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="anyType">
<sequence>
<element ref="xl:title" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
<attribute ref="xlink:type" use="required" fixed="locator"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:href" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:label" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:role" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:title" use="optional"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
<element name="locator" type="xl:locatorType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract locator element to be used as head of locator substitution group for all extended link locators in XBRL.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<simpleType name="useEnum">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Enumerated values for the use attribute on extended link arcs.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<restriction base="NMTOKEN">
<enumeration value="optional"/>
<enumeration value="prohibited"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
<complexType name="arcType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
basic extended link arc type - extended where necessary for specific arcs Extends the generic arc type by adding use, priority and order attributes.
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="anyType">
<sequence>
<element ref="xl:title" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</sequence>
<attribute ref="xlink:type" use="required" fixed="arc"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:from" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:to" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:arcrole" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:title" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:show" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:actuate" use="optional"/>
<attribute name="order" type="decimal" use="optional"/>
<attribute name="use" type="xl:useEnum" use="optional"/>
<attribute name="priority" type="integer" use="optional"/>
<anyAttribute namespace="##other" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
<element name="arc" type="xl:arcType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract element to use as head of arc element substitution group.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<complexType name="resourceType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Generic type for the resource type element
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent mixed="true">
<restriction base="anyType">
<attribute ref="xlink:type" use="required" fixed="resource"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:label" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:role" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:title" use="optional"/>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="optional"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
<element name="resource" type="xl:resourceType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract element to use as head of resource element substitution group.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<complexType name="extendedType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Generic extended link type
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="anyType">
<choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
<element ref="xl:title"/>
<element ref="xl:documentation"/>
<element ref="xl:locator"/>
<element ref="xl:arc"/>
<element ref="xl:resource"/>
</choice>
<attribute ref="xlink:type" use="required" fixed="extended"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:role" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:title" use="optional"/>
<attribute name="id" type="ID" use="optional"/>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
<element name="extended" type="xl:extendedType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Abstract extended link element at head of extended link substitution group.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
<complexType name="simpleType">
<annotation>
<documentation>
Type for the simple links defined in XBRL
</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexContent>
<restriction base="anyType">
<attribute ref="xlink:type" use="required" fixed="simple"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:href" use="required"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:arcrole" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:role" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:title" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:show" use="optional"/>
<attribute ref="xlink:actuate" use="optional"/>
<anyAttribute namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" processContents="lax"/>
</restriction>
</complexContent>
</complexType>
<element name="simple" type="xl:simpleType" abstract="true">
<annotation>
<documentation>
The abstract element at the head of the simple link substitution group.
</documentation>
</annotation>
</element>
</schema>

Appendix B Document history and acknowledgments (non-normative)

This specification could not have been written without the contribution of many people. The participants in the XBRL Specification Working Group, public commentators, and personal advisors have all played a significant role. At the time of the first publication of this specification as a Recommendation, the XBRL International Specification Group was chaired by Masatomo Goto, Fujitsu Laboratories of USA, and its vice chair was Hugh Wallis of Hyperion Solutions Corporation. The XBRL International Domain Working Group also produced and refined many issue drafts and final requirements documents that defined the scope and guided the priorities of this version of the specification. The XBRL International Domain working group was chaired by Mark Schnitzer of Morgan Stanley and vice chaired by John Turner of KPMG. In alphabetical order and in addition to those individuals already credited as editors, Peter Calvert of ICAEW, Eric E. Cohen of PricewaterhouseCoopers, Don Dwiggins, Justin Foley of DecisionSoft, Charles Hoffman of UBmatrix, Josef MacDonald of Ernst & Young, Manabu Mizutani of PCS, David Prather of IASCF, Campbell Pryde of KPMG, Noboyuki Sambuichi of Hitachi, Paul Warren of Decisionsoft (subsequently CoreFiling) and Eiichi Watanabe of TSR, all contributed to the authoring and refinement of requirements and reviewing of the specification. In addition to the above Mark Goodhand of Decisionsoft (subsequently CoreFiling) contributed to the authoring and refinement of subsequent errata corrections.

DateAuthorDetails
20 February 2013Mark Goodhand

Reformatting of specification in S4S format. This edition incorporates no new errata; constraints and semantics are unchanged from the previous edition. The HTML version is now normative.

31 October 2011Herm Fischer

Editorial to correction 074 typo. Erratum correction 075: Revision of IEEE Floating Point standard reference. Change to Section 4.6.7.1 and Section 4.6.7.2 from non-standandard terms and conflicting descriptions ( Section 4.6.7.1 was round ties to larger magnitude, Section 4.6.7.2 was round ties to lesser magnitude), to round ties to even (referencing the IEEE standard term and recommendation).

29 April 2011Hugh Wallis

Editorial to publish as Proposed Edited Recommendation (erratum correction 074)

07 March 2011Herm Fischer

Incorporated changes to change from inferring Decimals to inferring Precision – erratum correction 074

23 June 2008Hugh Wallis

Added errata corrections 069-073 and reflected approval by the SWG.

04 March 2008Hugh Wallis

Removed text that had been deleted pursuant to erratum correction 006 but which had incorrectly (due to an editing error) been reinstated ( Section 5.2.5.2).

10 January 2007Hugh Wallis

Added errata corrections 060-068 and reflected approval for publication by the XBRL International Standards Board.

21 January 2006Hugh Wallis

Added erratum correction 059. Updated e-mail addresses and affiliations of editors and contributors.

07 November 2005Hugh Wallis

Updated document to reflect approval for publication by the International Steering Committee of XBRL International.

01 November 2005Hugh Wallis

Added errata corrections 048-058.

25 April 2005Hugh Wallis

Updated document to reflect approval for publication by the International Steering Committee of XBRL International.

30 March 2005Hugh Wallis

Updated document to reflect Specification Working Group approval of errata correction 013 and 047. Incorporated publication date (2005-04-25) in document title, name and text regarding the location on the web of non-normative versions of the schemas (Appendix A).

24 March 2005Hugh Wallis

Updated document to reflect Specification Working Group approval of errata corrections 044-046. Incorporated errata corrections 013 and 047. Added recognition of contribution from Mark Goodhand of Decisionsoft.

10 March 2005Hugh Wallis

Updated document to reflect Specification Working Group approval of errata corrections 034-043. Incorporated errata correction 044-046.

03 March 2005Hugh Wallis

Incorporated errata corrections 034-043

08 October 2004Hugh Wallis

Updated document to reflect Specification Working Group approval of all errata corrections preparatory to publication.

01 October 2004Hugh Wallis

Incorporated final edits for erratum 027 and correction for erratum 033.

30 September 2004Hugh Wallis

Incorporated further changes to errata 027 and 031 corrections as well as correction for erratum 032.

08 September 2004Hugh Wallis

Incorporated additional minor wording modifications to erratum correction 027. Reflected Working Group approval of errata corrections 026 and 028-030.

19 August 2004Hugh Wallis

Incorporated errata corrections 028-030.

12 August 2004Hugh Wallis

Incorporated errata corrections 026-027.

27 July 2004Hugh Wallis

updated e-mail address and affiliation for editor Wallis. Reflected Specification Working Group approval of errata corrections 018-022 and 024-025.

14 July 2004Hugh Wallis

incorporated correction of errata 018-022 and 024-025 pending Specification Working Group approval, erratum 023 indicating approval already given.

30 April 2004Hugh Wallis

Updated list of errata to indicate approvals by the Specification Working Group. Updated status section to indicate approval by the ISC for publication. Added non-normative note to Appendix A regarding the schema maintenance policy for schema updates and their location on the web.

23 April 2004Hugh Wallis

Incorporated correction of errata 009-017 (excluding 013 which is still in preparation as of this date).

26 February 2004Hugh Wallis

Updated correction of erratum 004 to include anyAttribute in the declaration of additional elements. Incorporated corrections for errata 006, 007 and 008.

12 February 2004Hugh Wallis

Incorporated corrections for errata 004 and 005. Updated corrections for erratum 001.

22 January 2004Hugh Wallis

Incorporated corrections for errata 001, 002 and 003. Changed descriptive text on page 1 to reflect the status of the document as incorporating errata corrections. Added Appendix D to provide summary documentation of errata corrections.

Changes prior to 2003-12-31 were reflected in the original RECOMMENDATION of that date. All changes subsequent to that date are errata corrections or editorial.

DateAuthorDetails
28 December 2003Hugh Wallis

Corrected schema definition of arcroleType to include the @id attribute as described in Section 5.1.4. Changed the document status, title, headers and footers etc. to reflect the status of RECOMMENDATION.

17 December 2003Hugh Wallis

Enhanced Example 6 to include examples of each rule relating to relationship prohibition and overriding.

17 December 2003Phillip Engel

Added Section 1.6 to document namespace prefix conventions used in the text. Various typographical and formatting corrections and improvements throughout. Further tidying up of language around the notion that arcs represent relationships for greater consistency. Edited "new arc roles" to read "custom arc roles" and "new role" to read "custom role" throughout, for consistency of terminology. Added section header for some non-numeric item types in table 7.

15 December 2003Hugh Wallis

Editorial corrections to definitions in Section 1.4 – added defintion of "ancestor". Replaced occurrences of "instance document" and "XBRL document" with the more precise "XBRL instance" throughout, where appropriate. Deleted "sets" from Section 3.5.3.9.7.4 when referring to XML fragments since it had previously been erroneously introduced as an editorial change. Corrected "MAY" to "MUST" in the second sentence of Section 4.2 ( <schemaRef> element). Replaced line drawings with graphics in Examples 24, 40, 41, 42. Updated text in subsections of Section 5.2 to clarify the notion that arcs represent relationships. Corrected broken hyperlinks and outdated references in Section 1.3 and Section 6. Removed references to schemas that are no longer part of the specification from Appendix A. Deleted Appendix D (Approval Process). Various minor grammatical and typographical corrections throughout the document.

10 December 2003Hugh Wallis

Corrected section formatting in Section 3.5.3.7.3. Corrected Example 51 to add xbrli:periodType attribute. Removed sentence from Section 3.5.3.9 that appeared to contradict the limitations on number of XML fragments that c